How to format your references using the FEMS Microbiology Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for FEMS Microbiology Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Robinson K. Personal finance. Young scientists need firm plan to make up for a late start. Science 2006;313:1454–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Castanotto D, Rossi JJ. The promises and pitfalls of RNA-interference-based therapeutics. Nature 2009;457:426–33.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bingenheimer JB, Brennan RT, Earls FJ. Firearm violence exposure and serious violent behavior. Science 2005;308:1323–6.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Beer C, Reichstein M, Tomelleri E et al. Terrestrial gross carbon dioxide uptake: global distribution and covariation with climate. Science 2010;329:834–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Taylor FJ. Digital Filters. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011.
An edited book
Klinkel S, Butenweg C, Lin G et al. eds. Seismic Design of Industrial Facilities: Proceedings of the International Conference on Seismic Design of Industrial Facilities (SeDIF-Conference). Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
AL-Hussaini EK, Ahsanullah M. Family of Exponentiated Burr Type XII Distributions. In: Ahsanullah M (ed.). Exponentiated Distributions. Paris: Atlantis Press, 2015, 103–22.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for FEMS Microbiology Letters.

Blog post
Andrew E. Studies Reveal Health Risks Of E-Cigarettes. IFLScience 2014.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Shuttle: NASA’s Procurement of Solid Rocket Booster Motors. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pan S. Cybersecurity testing and intrusion detection for cyber-physical power systems. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman J. Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times. August 17, 2016:MM18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Robinson 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Robinson 2006; Castanotto and Rossi 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Castanotto and Rossi 2009)
  • Three authors: (Bingenheimer, Brennan and Earls 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Beer et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleFEMS Microbiology Letters
AbbreviationFEMS Microbiol. Lett.
ISSN (print)0378-1097
ISSN (online)1574-6968
ScopeGenetics
Molecular Biology
Microbiology

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