How to format your references using the Ethnobiology and Conservation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethnobiology and Conservation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heritage J (2003) Plant sciences. Will GM rapeseed cut the mustard? Science (New York, N.Y.) 302:401–403
A journal article with 2 authors
Kahane G, Shackel N (2008) Do abnormal responses show utilitarian bias? Nature 452:E5; author reply E5-6
A journal article with 3 authors
Chandra FA, Buzi G, Doyle JC (2011) Glycolytic oscillations and limits on robust efficiency. Science (New York, N.Y.) 333:187–192
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jiang Y, Ruta V, Chen J, Lee A, MacKinnon R (2003) The principle of gating charge movement in a voltage-dependent K+ channel. Nature 423:42–48

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gamenara D, Seoane GA, Saenz-Méndez P, de María PD (2012) Redox Biocatalysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
(2011) Robotics Research: The 14th International Symposium ISRR. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Suzuki T, Kobayashi T, Boase J (2016) Political Conversations as Civic Engagement: Examining Patterns from Mobile Communication Logs in Japan. In: Wei R (ed) Mobile Media, Political Participation, and Civic Activism in Asia: Private Chat to Public Communication. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 57–79

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethnobiology and Conservation.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) The Fate Of The Universe: Heat Death, Big Rip Or Cosmic Consciousness? [] Accessed October 30, 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996) NASA Facilities: Challenges to Achieving Reductions and Efficiencies. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ellis GS (2012) Compound-Specific Stable Isotopic Analysis of Protein Amino Acids: Ecological Applications in Modern and Ancient Systems. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rashbaum WK, Mueller B (2015) Escaped Killer Is Fatally Shot in New York. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Heritage 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Heritage 2003; Kahane and Shackel 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kahane and Shackel 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Jiang et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthnobiology and Conservation
ISSN (online)2238-4782
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Plant Science
Nature and Landscape Conservation

Other styles