How to format your references using the Ethnobiology and Conservation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethnobiology and Conservation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fabry VJ (2008) Ocean science. Marine calcifiers in a high-CO2 ocean. Science (New York, N.Y.) 320:1020–1022
A journal article with 2 authors
Roediger HL 3rd, DeSoto KA (2014) Cognitive psychology. Forgetting the presidents. Science (New York, N.Y.) 346:1106–1109
A journal article with 3 authors
ffrench-Constant C, Colognato H, Franklin RJM (2004) Neuroscience. The mysteries of myelin unwrapped. Science (New York, N.Y.) 304:688–689
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bouarab K, Melton R, Peart J, Baulcombe D, Osbourn A (2002) A saponin-detoxifying enzyme mediates suppression of plant defences. Nature 418:889–892

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McGee G (2012) Bioethics for beginners. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
(2006) OPLL: Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament. 2nd Edition ed. Springer Japan, Tokyo
A chapter in an edited book
Staack H (2005) Xetra Active Funds (XAF) — More than “Just” Index Tracking. In: Hehn E (ed) Exchange Traded Funds: Structure, Regulation and Application of a New Fund Class. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 61–70

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethnobiology and Conservation.

Blog post
Davis J (2017) Taliban Issue Unusual Statement Encouraging Afghans To Plant Trees. [] Accessed October 30, 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) Transition From School to Work: H.R. 2884 Addresses Components of Comprehensive Strategy. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wadhwa PH (2015) Secure building automation system using Tesla protocol. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schilling MK (2017) Mother of Invention. New York Times M2114

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fabry 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Fabry 2008; Roediger and DeSoto 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Roediger and DeSoto 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Bouarab et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthnobiology and Conservation
ISSN (online)2238-4782
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Plant Science
Nature and Landscape Conservation

Other styles