How to format your references using the Ethnobiology and Conservation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethnobiology and Conservation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sloggett JJ (2013) Comment on “Invasive harlequin ladybird carries biological weapons against native competitors.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 341:1342
A journal article with 2 authors
Cuffey KM, Vimeux F (2001) Covariation of carbon dioxide and temperature from the Vostok ice core after deuterium-excess correction. Nature 412:523–527
A journal article with 3 authors
Padhi AK, Jayaram B, Gomes J (2013) Prediction of functional loss of human angiogenin mutants associated with ALS by molecular dynamics simulations. Scientific reports 3:1225
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ochsenbein AF, Sierro S, Odermatt B, Pericin M, Karrer U, Hermans J, Hemmi S, Hengartner H, Zinkernagel RM (2001) Roles of tumour localization, second signals and cross priming in cytotoxic T-cell induction. Nature 411:1058–1064

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sericola B (2013) Markov Chains. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA
An edited book
Ribes R (2010) Learning Musculoskeletal Imaging. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Ermine W, Pittman J (2011) Nikan oti (the future): Adaptation and Adaptive Capacity in Two First Nations Communities. In: Leal Filho W (ed) The Economic, Social and Political Elements of Climate Change. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 69–80

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethnobiology and Conservation.

Blog post
Andrews R (2017) Extremely Elusive Monkey Population Captured On Camera For First Time. [] Accessed October 30, 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004) Telecommunications: Issues Related to Federal Funding for Public Television by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dias J (2014) Factors associated with poor oral health among older adults. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2007) Justices Agree to Hear Case Challenging Voter ID Laws. New York Times A24

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sloggett 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Cuffey and Vimeux 2001; Sloggett 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cuffey and Vimeux 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Ochsenbein et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthnobiology and Conservation
ISSN (online)2238-4782
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Plant Science
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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