How to format your references using the Ethnobiology and Conservation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethnobiology and Conservation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sambles JR (2015) Optics. Structured photons take it slow. Science (New York, N.Y.) 347:828
A journal article with 2 authors
Gómez FJ, Waymouth RM (2002) Polymer synthesis. Catalysts rise to the challenge. Science (New York, N.Y.) 295:635–636
A journal article with 3 authors
Yang L, Garbe DS, Bashaw GJ (2009) A frazzled/DCC-dependent transcriptional switch regulates midline axon guidance. Science (New York, N.Y.) 324:944–947
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang Z, Lee J, He K, Shan J, Feng PX-L (2014) Embracing structural nonidealities and asymmetries in two-dimensional nanomechanical resonators. Scientific reports 4:3919

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Westermeier R (2004) Electrophoresis in Practice. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG
An edited book
Damro C (2016) European Competition Policy and Globalization. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London
A chapter in an edited book
Cendón B, Herrero J, Agüero R, Rodríguez A, Albillos S, Sainz J, Sanz A, Gómez D (2010) An Access Selection Prototype Based on IEEE 802.21. In: Chatzimisios P, Verikoukis C, Santamaría I, Laddomada M, Hoffmann O (eds) Mobile Lightweight Wireless Systems: Second International ICST Conference, MOBILIGHT 2010, Barcelona, Spain, May 10-12, 2010, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 31–42

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethnobiology and Conservation.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Scientists Investigate The Mechanisms Behind The Floating Arm Trick. [] Accessed October 30, 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996) Department of Education: Status of Actions to Improve the Management of Student Financial Aid. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chapman TW (2017) Evaluating the δ13C Value of n-Alkanes as a Recorder of Atmospheric Chemistry. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW (2011) Alabama Governor Fails to Prevent Jefferson County’s Record $4 Billion Bankruptcy Filing. New York Times A16

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sambles 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Gómez and Waymouth 2002; Sambles 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gómez and Waymouth 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthnobiology and Conservation
ISSN (online)2238-4782
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Plant Science
Nature and Landscape Conservation

Other styles