How to format your references using the Ethnobiology and Conservation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethnobiology and Conservation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buckingham S (2004) Bioinformatics: data’s future shock. Nature 428:774–777
A journal article with 2 authors
Bannerman DM, Sprengel R (2007) Neuroscience. Remembering the subtle differences. Science (New York, N.Y.) 317:50–51
A journal article with 3 authors
Munday JN, Capasso F, Parsegian VA (2009) Measured long-range repulsive Casimir-Lifshitz forces. Nature 457:170–173
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Buxton JL, Suderman M, Pappas JJ, Borghol N, McArdle W, Blakemore AIF, Hertzman C, Power C, Szyf M, Pembrey M (2014) Human leukocyte telomere length is associated with DNA methylation levels in multiple subtelomeric and imprinted loci. Scientific reports 4:4954

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cumming DJ (2010) Venture Capital. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Farooqui AA (2007) Glycerophospholipids in the Brain: Phospholipases A2 in Neurological Disorders. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Martín-Alcalde E, Saurí S, Ng AKY (2016) Port-Focal Logistics and the Evolution of Port Regions in a Globalized World. In: Lee PT-W, Cullinane K (eds) Dynamic Shipping and Port Development in the Globalized Economy: Volume 1: Applying Theory to Practice in Maritime Logistics. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp. 102–127

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethnobiology and Conservation.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2016) American Medical Association Warns Of Health And Safety Problems From “White” LED Streetlights. [] Accessed October 30, 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005) Telecommunications: Market Developments in the Global Satellite Services Industry and the Implementation of the ORBIT Act. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Guillory MK (2017) An Analysis of Corporal Punishment Practices in the State of Tennessee. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Quain JR (2017) Your Car May Soon Be Able to Read Your Face. New York Times B6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Buckingham 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Bannerman and Sprengel 2007; Buckingham 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bannerman and Sprengel 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Buxton et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthnobiology and Conservation
ISSN (online)2238-4782
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Plant Science
Nature and Landscape Conservation

Other styles