How to format your references using the Hearing Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hearing Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Becchetti, F.D., 2002. Nuclear fusion. Evidence for nuclear reactions in imploding bubbles. Science 295, 1850.
A journal article with 2 authors
Klausberger, T., Somogyi, P., 2008. Neuronal diversity and temporal dynamics: the unity of hippocampal circuit operations. Science 321, 53–57.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pompilio, L., Kacelnik, A., Behmer, S.T., 2006. State-dependent learned valuation drives choice in an invertebrate. Science 311, 1613–1615.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fu, Q., Johanson, C.M., Warren, S.G., Seidel, D.J., 2004. Contribution of stratospheric cooling to satellite-inferred tropospheric temperature trends. Nature 429, 55–58.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Weinberg, S., 2011. Cost-Contained Regulatory Compliance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Bandyopadhyay, S., 2007. Classification and Learning Using Genetic Algorithms: Applications in Bioinformatics and Web Intelligence, Natural Computing Series. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Danziger, M.M., Shekhtman, L.M., Bashan, A., Berezin, Y., Havlin, S., 2016. Vulnerability of Interdependent Networks and Networks of Networks, in: Garas, A. (Ed.), Interconnected Networks, Understanding Complex Systems. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 79–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hearing Research.

Blog post
Carpineti, C., 2017. New Dead Sea Scrolls Cave Discovered In Israel [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. Space Station: Resolving Conflict Over Integration Contractor’s Role (No. NSIAD-92-291BR). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Matheny, A.L., 2009. Home gardener preferences, perceptions, knowledge and behaviors associated with pest management strategies and information acquisition (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B., 2017. Milestone for BMI: More Than $1 Billion in Music Royalties. New York Times B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Becchetti, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Becchetti, 2002; Klausberger and Somogyi, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Klausberger and Somogyi, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Fu et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleHearing Research
AbbreviationHear. Res.
ISSN (print)0378-5955
ScopeSensory Systems

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