How to format your references using the Hearing Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hearing Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dolgin, E., 2013. Cancer vaccines: Material breach. Nature 504, S16-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goedert, M., Cheng, Y., 2015. Parkinson’s disease: Crystals of a toxic core. Nature 525, 458–459.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yoshida, N., Omukai, K., Hernquist, L., 2008. Protostar formation in the early universe. Science 321, 669–671.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wei, P., Zhang, J., Egan-Hafley, M., Liang, S., Moore, D.D., 2000. The nuclear receptor CAR mediates specific xenobiotic induction of drug metabolism. Nature 407, 920–923.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lacalle, D., 2014. Life in the Financial Markets. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Bhatt, D.L. (Ed.), 2012. Peripheral and Cerebrovascular Intervention, Contemporary Cardiology. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
A chapter in an edited book
Lee, G., Yun, U., 2014. Frequent Graph Mining Based on Multiple Minimum Support Constraints, in: Park, J.J. (jong H., Adeli, H., Park, N., Woungang, I. (Eds.), Mobile, Ubiquitous, and Intelligent Computing: MUSIC 2013, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 19–23.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hearing Research.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2017. Copper Is Great At Killing Superbugs – So Why Don’t Hospitals Use It? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2008. Commercial Drivers: Certification Process for Drivers with Serious Medical Conditions (No. GAO-08-826). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith, B.L., 2017. A Qualitative Study of Veteran Students’ Perspectives of Their Academic Experiences (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman, J., 2016. Up for Anyting: The Common Swift, Ever in the Air. New York Times D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dolgin, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Dolgin, 2013; Goedert and Cheng, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Goedert and Cheng, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Wei et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleHearing Research
AbbreviationHear. Res.
ISSN (print)0378-5955
ScopeSensory Systems

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