How to format your references using the Hearing Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hearing Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Miralda-Escudé, J., 2001. Cosmology. Probing matter at the lowest densities. Science 293, 1055–1056.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jacobs, H.O., Whitesides, G.M., 2001. Submicrometer patterning of charge in thin-film electrets. Science 291, 1763–1766.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lin, J., Balabin, I.A., Beratan, D.N., 2005. The nature of aqueous tunneling pathways between electron-transfer proteins. Science 310, 1311–1313.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ghosal, S., Hemminger, J.C., Bluhm, H., Mun, B.S., Hebenstreit, E.L.D., Ketteler, G., Ogletree, D.F., Requejo, F.G., Salmeron, M., 2005. Electron spectroscopy of aqueous solution interfaces reveals surface enhancement of halides. Science 307, 563–566.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stacey, W.M., 2010. Fusion. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Rasul, N.M.A., Stewart, I.C.F. (Eds.), 2015. The Red Sea: The Formation, Morphology, Oceanography and Environment of a Young Ocean Basin, Springer Earth System Sciences. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Oku, K., Tung, T.S., Hattori, F., 2011. Collaborative Filtering for Predicting Users’ Potential Preferences, in: König, A., Dengel, A., Hinkelmann, K., Kise, K., Howlett, R.J., Jain, L.C. (Eds.), Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems: 15th International Conference, KES 2011, Kaiserslautern, Germany, September 12-14, 2011, Proceedings, Part IV, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 44–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hearing Research.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. To Avoid Fights, Male Elephant Seals Remember The Calls Of Their Rivals [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Telecommunications: FCC’s Handling of Formal Complaints Filed Against Common Carriers (No. RCED-93-83). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kaplan, C.M., 2017. Understanding the Anxiolytic Effects of Alcohol on the Central Extended Amygdala in Humans (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J., 2017. A Tabloid Murder Tale of Little Suspense. New York Times C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Miralda-Escudé, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Jacobs and Whitesides, 2001; Miralda-Escudé, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jacobs and Whitesides, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Ghosal et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleHearing Research
AbbreviationHear. Res.
ISSN (print)0378-5955
ScopeSensory Systems

Other styles