How to format your references using the Hearing Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hearing Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kane, T.J., 2003. Education. The long road to race-blindness. Science 302, 571–573.
A journal article with 2 authors
Davies, I.W., Welch, C.J., 2009. Looking forward in pharmaceutical process chemistry. Science 325, 701–704.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cosgaya, J.M., Chan, J.R., Shooter, E.M., 2002. The neurotrophin receptor p75NTR as a positive modulator of myelination. Science 298, 1245–1248.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Armond, J.W., Saha, K., Rana, A.A., Oates, C.J., Jaenisch, R., Nicodemi, M., Mukherjee, S., 2014. A stochastic model dissects cell states in biological transition processes. Sci. Rep. 4, 3692.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tiwari, A., Gerhardt, R.A., Szutkowska, M., 2016. Advanced Ceramic Materials. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Vayenas, C., White, R.E., Gamboa-Aldeco, M.E. (Eds.), 2007. Modern Aspects Of Electrochemistry, Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Gaffney, P., 2012. Living with Uncertainty, in: Dienstfrey, A.M., Boisvert, R.F. (Eds.), Uncertainty Quantification in Scientific Computing: 10th IFIP WG 2.5 Working Conference, WoCoUQ 2011, Boulder, CO, USA, August 1-4, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 46–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hearing Research.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. Scarlet Kingsnake Still Mimics Extinct Venomous Species [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1980. First Look at Senior Executive Service Performance Awards (No. FPCD-80-74). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thompson, K., 2015. Paid formal caregivers and caregiver burden: A quantitative study (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S., 2008. The Bolshoi Ballet Appoints a New Artistic Director. New York Times E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kane, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Davies and Welch, 2009; Kane, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Davies and Welch, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Armond et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleHearing Research
AbbreviationHear. Res.
ISSN (print)0378-5955
ScopeSensory Systems

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