How to format your references using the Geological Society, London, Memoirs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geological Society, London, Memoirs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ruan, Y. 2011. Genome-sequencing anniversary. Presenting the human genome: now in 3D! Science (New York, N.Y.), 331, 1025–1026.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shuler, M.G. and Bear, M.F. 2006. Reward timing in the primary visual cortex. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311, 1606–1609.
A journal article with 3 authors
Senghas, A., Kita, S. and Ozyürek, A. 2004. Children creating core properties of language: evidence from an emerging sign language in Nicaragua. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305, 1779–1782.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Leinders-Zufall, T., Brennan, P., et al. 2004. MHC class I peptides as chemosensory signals in the vomeronasal organ. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306, 1033–1037.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bunker, G. and Thomson, D. 2006. Delivering Utility Computing.
An edited book
Kusano, M., Kokudo, N., Toi, M. and Kaibori, M. (eds). 2016. ICG Fluorescence Imaging and Navigation Surgery, 1st ed. 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Yin, P., Ye, M., Lee, W.-C. and Li, Z. 2014. Mining GPS Data for Trajectory Recommendation. In: Tseng, V. S., Ho, T. B., Zhou, Z.-H., Chen, A. L. P. and Kao, H.-Y. (eds) Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining: 18th Pacific-Asia Conference, PAKDD 2014, Tainan, Taiwan, May 13-16, 2014. Proceedings, Part II. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 50–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geological Society, London, Memoirs.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. NASA Wants to Send an Airplane to Mars. IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. Air Traffic Control: Status of FAA’s Modernization Program. RCED-93-121FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green, J.L. 2012. The Leadership Practices of Executive Women of Local Government. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. 2009. Stranger in the Night. New York Times, CY3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ruan 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Shuler and Bear 2006; Ruan 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shuler and Bear 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Leinders-Zufall et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeological Society, London, Memoirs
AbbreviationGeol. Soc. Lond. Mem.
ISSN (print)0435-4052
ISSN (online)2041-4722

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