How to format your references using the Geological Society, London, Memoirs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geological Society, London, Memoirs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Haroche, S. 2012. The secrets of my prizewinning research. Nature, 490, 311.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gurnett, D.A. and Kurth, W.S. 2005. Electron plasma oscillations upstream of the solar wind termination shock. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309, 2025–2027.
A journal article with 3 authors
López, C.A., de Vries, A.H. and Marrink, S.J. 2013. Computational microscopy of cyclodextrin mediated cholesterol extraction from lipid model membranes. Scientific reports, 3, 2071.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Eisaman, M.D., André, A., Massou, F., Fleischhauer, M., Zibrov, A.S. and Lukin, M.D. 2005. Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses. Nature, 438, 837–841.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Frikha, M. 2013. Ad Hoc Networks.
An edited book
Kämäräinen, J.-K. and Koskela, M. (eds). 2013. Image Analysis: 18th Scandinavian Conference, SCIA 2013, Espoo, Finland, June 17-20, 2013. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science.
A chapter in an edited book
Reiter, E. and Williams, S. 2010. Generating Texts in Different Styles. In: Argamon, S., Burns, K. and Dubnov, S. (eds) The Structure of Style: Algorithmic Approaches to Understanding Manner and Meaning. 59–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geological Society, London, Memoirs.

Blog post
Andrew, D. 2017. 29 Of The Most Surreal Landscapes On The Planet. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2003. Technology Transfer: NIH-Private Sector Partnership in the Development of Taxol. GAO-03-829.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Warren, K.L. 2014. Agents of Change: A New Role for Learners in Online Workplace Training. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kaminer, A. and Southall, A. 2013. Baruch College Student Dies After Fraternity Ritual in Poconos. New York Times, A29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Haroche 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Gurnett and Kurth 2005; Haroche 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gurnett and Kurth 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Eisaman et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeological Society, London, Memoirs
AbbreviationGeol. Soc. Lond. Mem.
ISSN (print)0435-4052
ISSN (online)2041-4722

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