How to format your references using the Geological Society, London, Memoirs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geological Society, London, Memoirs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kuypers, M.M.M. 2007. Microbiology. Sizing up the uncultivated majority. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317, 1510–1511.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhu, M. and Yu, X. 2002. A primitive fish close to the common ancestor of tetrapods and lungfish. Nature, 418, 767–770.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grenier, I.A., Casandjian, J.-M. and Terrier, R. 2005. Unveiling extensive clouds of dark gas in the solar neighborhood. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307, 1292–1295.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Johnson, A.P., Cleaves, H.J., Dworkin, J.P., Glavin, D.P., Lazcano, A. and Bada, J.L. 2008. The Miller volcanic spark discharge experiment. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322, 404.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kerzner, H. 2017. Project Management Case Studies.
An edited book
Gómez, G. and Masdemont, J.J. (eds). 2016. Astrodynamics Network AstroNet-II: The Final Conference. Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings.
A chapter in an edited book
Sunderland, N., Kendall, E., Marshall, C.A. and Barlow, L. 2016. I’ll Paint you a Picture and You’ll Hear my Story: Broadening the Scope of Narrative Research for Arts-Based Service Learning. In: Bartleet, B.-L., Bennett, D., Power, A. and Sunderland, N. (eds) Engaging First Peoples in Arts-Based Service Learning: Towards Respectful and Mutually Beneficial Educational Practices. Landscapes: the Arts, Aesthetics, and Education, 71–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geological Society, London, Memoirs.

Blog post
Hale, T. 2016. Can You Spot The Hidden Object In This Image Of A Car Seat? IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2004. Pipeline Safety: Preliminary Information on the Office of Pipeline Safety’s Efforts to Strengthen Its Enforcement Activities. GAO-04-875T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wheatley, B.A. 2010. Leadership Styles of Healthcare Executives: Comparisons of Transformational, Transactional, and Passive-Avoidant Styles. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. 2011. 50 Years Later, Maris’s 61-Homer Season Looks Even Better. New York Times, SP2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kuypers 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Zhu and Yu 2002; Kuypers 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhu and Yu 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Johnson et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeological Society, London, Memoirs
AbbreviationGeol. Soc. Lond. Mem.
ISSN (print)0435-4052
ISSN (online)2041-4722

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