How to format your references using the Geological Society, London, Memoirs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geological Society, London, Memoirs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ellerbroek, B. 2014. Astronomical instrumentation: Atmospheric blurring has a new enemy. Nature, 512, 144–145.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ramirez Rozzi, F.V. and Bermudez De Castro, J.M. 2004. Surprisingly rapid growth in Neanderthals. Nature, 428, 936–939.
A journal article with 3 authors
Martianov, I., Viville, S. and Davidson, I. 2002. RNA polymerase II transcription in murine cells lacking the TATA binding protein. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298, 1036–1039.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ono, M., Yaguchi, H., et al. 2007. Foxp3 controls regulatory T-cell function by interacting with AML1/Runx1. Nature, 446, 685–689.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sestina, J.E. 2016. Planning a Successful Future.
An edited book
Lajtha, A. and Banik, N. (eds). 2007. Handbook of Neurochemistry and Molecular Neurobiology: Neural Protein Metabolism and Function.
A chapter in an edited book
Nenon, T. 2011. The Limits of Biomedical Ethics and the Specific Role of Phenomenology in Biomedical Ethics. In: Wiggins, O. P. and Allen, A. C. (eds) Clinical Ethics and the Necessity of Stories: Essays in Honor of Richard M. Zaner. Philosophy and Medicine, 45–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geological Society, London, Memoirs.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. 2016. Hubble Snaps Gorgeous View Of A Cosmic Microwave Laser. IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Updated Status of Department of Education’s Information Systems. T-AIMD-99-8.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liang, M. 2012. Information, Communication and Wayfinding: Technology Shows Us the World. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dominus, S. 2016. Parent Companies. New York Times, MM46.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ellerbroek 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Ramirez Rozzi and Bermudez De Castro 2004; Ellerbroek 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ramirez Rozzi and Bermudez De Castro 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Ono et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeological Society, London, Memoirs
AbbreviationGeol. Soc. Lond. Mem.
ISSN (print)0435-4052
ISSN (online)2041-4722

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