How to format your references using the Geological Society, London, Memoirs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geological Society, London, Memoirs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Liu, J. 2010. Environment. China’s road to sustainability. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328, 50.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li, J. and Cheng, J.-X. 2014. Direct visualization of de novo lipogenesis in single living cells. Scientific reports, 4, 6807.
A journal article with 3 authors
Luo, Y., White, L. and Hui, D. 2004. Comment on ‘Impacts of fine root turnover on forest NPP and soil C sequestration potential’. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304, 1745; author reply 1745.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Aouadi, M., Tesz, G.J., et al. 2009. Orally delivered siRNA targeting macrophage Map4k4 suppresses systemic inflammation. Nature, 458, 1180–1184.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goering, H., Roos, H.-G. and Tobiska, L. 2010. Die Finite-Elemente-Methode Für Anfänger.
An edited book
Membrey, P. 2012. Practical Load Balancing: Ride the Performance Tiger. Hows, D. and Plugge, E. (eds).
A chapter in an edited book
Silva, F.A.N.G., Barbato, C.N., Santos, R.D., de Almeida, D.S.G., Sampaio, J.A., Medeiros, M.E. and Garrido, F.M.S. 2016. Mechanochemical Activation of Bauxite. In: Suarez, C. E. (ed.) Light Metals 2012. 27–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geological Society, London, Memoirs.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. Why Mothers Matter More Than Diet When It Comes To The Obesity Crisis. IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. Policy Guidance 1963-1986: Interview With Donald J. Horan, Eugene L. Pahl, and Allen R. Voss. OP-23-OH.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mannar, N.K. 2017. Hri-Tech Consultants, LLC. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. 2012. View at Practice Courts an Intimate but Possibly Endangered Perk. New York Times, D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Liu 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Liu 2010; Li and Cheng 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Li and Cheng 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Aouadi et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeological Society, London, Memoirs
AbbreviationGeol. Soc. Lond. Mem.
ISSN (print)0435-4052
ISSN (online)2041-4722

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