How to format your references using the Geological Society, London, Memoirs citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geological Society, London, Memoirs. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buetow, K.H. 2005. Cyberinfrastructure: empowering a ‘third way’ in biomedical research. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308, 821–824.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, Y. & Dohlman, H.G. 2004. Pheromone signaling mechanisms in yeast: a prototypical sex machine. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306, 1508–1509.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tahir, M., MacKinnon, A. & Schwingenschlögl, U. 2014. Novel spectral features of nanoelectromechanical systems. Scientific reports, 4, 4035.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Jeon, Y., Park, D.-H., Park, J.-I., Yoon, S.-H., Mochida, I., Choy, J.-H. & Shul, Y.-G. 2013. Hollow fibers networked with perovskite nanoparticles for H2 production from heavy oil. Scientific reports, 3, 2902.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Campbell, C.A. 2008. The One-Page Project Manager for It Projects. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Alpini, D.C., Brugnoni, G. & Cesarani, A. (eds). 2014. Whiplash Injuries: Diagnosis and Treatment, 2nd ed. 2014. Milano, Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ramprasad, R., Shi, N. & Tang, C. 2010. Modeling the Physics and Chemistry of Interfaces in Nanodielectrics. In: Nelson, J. K. (ed.) Dielectric Polymer Nanocomposites. Boston, MA, Springer US, 133–161.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geological Society, London, Memoirs.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015. Test-driving the brain could reveal early signs of Alzheimer’s. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. EOS Data Policy: Questions Remain About U.S. Commercial Access. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, IMTEC-92-44.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Becker, M. 2017. Women’s Descriptions Six Months Post Notification of Positive BRCA 1/2 Genetic Mutations. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K. 2004. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Inquiry Into Pneumonia In Army. New York Times, A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Buetow 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Wang & Dohlman 2004; Buetow 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang & Dohlman 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Jeon et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeological Society, London, Memoirs
AbbreviationGeol. Soc. Lond. Mem.
ISSN (print)0435-4052
ISSN (online)2041-4722

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