How to format your references using the Journal of Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Craddock Lee, S.J. (2000). Unionization of teaching assistants. Science 288, 1965c.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee, S. & Feldstein, S.B. (2013). Detecting ozone- and greenhouse gas-driven wind trends with observational data. Science 339, 563–567.
A journal article with 3 authors
Buffetaut, E., Martill, D. & Escuillié, F. (2004). Pterosaurs as part of a spinosaur diet. Nature 430, 33.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Miguel, M.C., Vespignani, A., Zapperi, S., Weiss, J. & Grasso, J.R. (2001). Intermittent dislocation flow in viscoplastic deformation. Nature 410, 667–671.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Meiswinkel, R., Meyer, J. & Schnell, J. (2013). Design and Construction of Nuclear Power Plants. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Yan, X. (Ed.). (2015). Dan Shen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) in Medicine: Volume 1. Biology and Chemistry. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Vaquero, J.M. (2009). The Solar Diameter and the Astronomical Unit. In The Sun Recorded Through History: Scientific Data Extracted from Historical Documents, Astrophysics and Space Science Library: 217–278. Vaquero, J.M. (Ed.). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Zoology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Global Climate On The Verge Of A Multi-Decadal Change [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Export Controls: National Security Risks and Revisions to Controls on Computer Systems ( No. T-NSIAD-00-139). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Day, C. (2012). Medication-assisted treatment: Education for those who assist in the treatment of substance use disorders curriculum development. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2001). Writers Are Halted Mid-Sentence as a Y Cancels Classes. New York Times 147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Craddock Lee, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Craddock Lee, 2000; Lee & Feldstein, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lee & Feldstein, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Buffetaut, Martill & Escuillié, 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Miguel et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Zoology
AbbreviationJ. Zool. (1987)
ISSN (print)0952-8369
ISSN (online)1469-7998
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles