How to format your references using the Journal of Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schrag, D.P. (2009). Storage of carbon dioxide in offshore sediments. Science 325, 1658–1659.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gibbs, M.J. & Gibbs, A.J. (2006). Molecular virology: was the 1918 pandemic caused by a bird flu? Nature 440, E8; discussion E9-10.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lepper, C., Conway, S.J. & Fan, C.-M. (2009). Adult satellite cells and embryonic muscle progenitors have distinct genetic requirements. Nature 460, 627–631.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
De Leo, G.A., Rizzi, L., Caizzi, A. & Gatto, M. (2001). Carbon emissions. The economic benefits of the Kyoto Protocol. Nature 413, 478–479.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Summers, N. (2010). Managing Social Service Staff for Excellence. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kryszkiewicz, M., Rybinski, H., Skowron, A. & Raś, Z.W. (Eds.). (2011). Foundations of Intelligent Systems: 19th International Symposium, ISMIS 2011, Warsaw, Poland, June 28-30, 2011. Proceedings. , Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Adacher, L. & Flamini, M. (2011). Limiting Pollution in Ground Control Optimization. In Information and Communication on Technology for the Fight against Global Warming: First International Conference, ICT-GLOW 2011, Toulouse, France, August 30-31, 2011. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science: 41–55. Kranzlmüller, D. & Toja, A.M. (Eds.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Zoology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Apparently, Burning NH4Cr2O7 With HgSCN Opens A Portal To Hell [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Federal Retirement Processing: Applying Information Technology Acquisition Best Practices Could Help OPM Overcome a Long History of Unsuccessful Modernization Efforts ( No. GAO-15-277T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hey, S.E. (2015). Olivier Messiaen’s “Quartet for the End of Time”: A look at “The Abyss of the Birds” and socio-political issues, religion and performance practice in reference to the bible and the holocaust. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter, J. (2016). As Hopes for European Unity Dim, New E.U. Headquarters Are Glowing. New York Times A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schrag, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Gibbs & Gibbs, 2006; Schrag, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gibbs & Gibbs, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Lepper, Conway & Fan, 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (De Leo et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Zoology
AbbreviationJ. Zool. (1987)
ISSN (print)0952-8369
ISSN (online)1469-7998
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles