How to format your references using the Journal of Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Walsh, R.W. (2005). Astronomy. How is the solar corona heated? Science 307, 51–53.
A journal article with 2 authors
Holthuis, J.C.M. & Menon, A.K. (2014). Lipid landscapes and pipelines in membrane homeostasis. Nature 510, 48–57.
A journal article with 3 authors
Denholm, I., Devine, G.J. & Williamson, M.S. (2002). Evolutionary genetics. Insecticide resistance on the move. Science 297, 2222–2223.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Liu, S.Q., Roberts, D., Kharitonenkov, A., Zhang, B., Hanson, S.M., Li, Y.C., Zhang, L.-Q. & Wu, Y.H. (2013). Endocrine protection of ischemic myocardium by FGF21 from the liver and adipose tissue. Sci. Rep. 3, 2767.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Miller, M.B. (2013). Mathematics and Statistics for Financial Risk Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bischof, C., Hegering, H.-G., Nagel, W.E. & Wittum, G. (Eds.). (2012). Competence in High Performance Computing 2010: Proceedings of an International Conference on Competence in High Performance Computing, June 2010, Schloss Schwetzingen, Germany. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Xu, Y. & Liu, K. (2007). Evolutionary Grooming of Traffic in WDM Optical Networks. In Advances in Evolutionary Computing for System Design, Studies in Computational Intelligence: 95–137. Jain, L.C., Palade, V. & Srinivasan, D. (Eds.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Zoology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Google Has Developed A Self-Driving Car [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1987). District of Columbia: Inmate Participation in Correctional Programs and Previous Lorton Confinements ( No. GGD-87-90). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Foley, J.D. (2012). Comparing Kac-Moody groups over the complex numbers and fields of positive characteristic via homotopy theory. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2009). ‘The Way It’s Done in Japan.’ New York Times NJ15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Walsh, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Walsh, 2005; Holthuis & Menon, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Holthuis & Menon, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Denholm, Devine & Williamson, 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Liu et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Zoology
AbbreviationJ. Zool. (1987)
ISSN (print)0952-8369
ISSN (online)1469-7998
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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