How to format your references using the Journal of Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Irion, R. (2000). AAS HIGH-ENERGY ASTROPHYSICS DIVISION: X-rays Hit the Spot for Astrophysicists. Science 290, 1884–1885.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jordan, K.D. & Johnson, M.A. (2010). Chemistry. Downsizing the hydrated electron’s lair. Science 329, 42–43.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rust, M.J., Golden, S.S. & O’Shea, E.K. (2011). Light-driven changes in energy metabolism directly entrain the cyanobacterial circadian oscillator. Science 331, 220–223.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Oppenheimer, M., O’Neill, B.C., Webster, M. & Agrawala, S. (2007). Climate change. The limits of consensus. Science 317, 1505–1506.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hoffman, R.V. (2004). Organic Chemistry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Cazenave, T., Costa, D., Lopes, O., Manásevich, R., Rabinowitz, P., Ruf, B. & Tomei, C. (Eds.). (2006). Contributions to Nonlinear Analysis: A Tribute to D.G. de Figueiredo on the Occasion of his 70th Birthday. , Progress in Nonlinear Differential Equations and Their Applications. Basel: Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Gonzalez, R.B., Flores, I. & Ribosa-Nogué, R. (2016). Practical Pharmacology of Rivastigmine. In Practical Pharmacology for Alzheimer’s Disease: 63–103. Davis, K.L., Blesa Gonzalez, R. & Wilkinson, D.G. (Eds.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Zoology.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2015). Outrageous Drunken Behavior Linked To Genetic Mutation [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). The Intermodal Approach to Transportation ( No. 144264). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carrillo, J. (2010). Parenting education curriculum for single adolescent mothers in foster care. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Belcher, D. (2014). Yuri Lyubimov, Experimental Director of the Russian Stage, Is Dead at 97. New York Times A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Irion, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Irion, 2000; Jordan & Johnson, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jordan & Johnson, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Rust, Golden & O’Shea, 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Oppenheimer et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Zoology
AbbreviationJ. Zool. (1987)
ISSN (print)0952-8369
ISSN (online)1469-7998
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles