How to format your references using the Journal of Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stearns, T. (2015). Cell biology. Centrioles, in absentia. Science 348, 1091–1092.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kirchner, J.W. & Weil, A. (2000). Delayed biological recovery from extinctions throughout the fossil record. Nature 404, 177–180.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dixson, D.L., Abrego, D. & Hay, M.E. (2014). Reef ecology. Chemically mediated behavior of recruiting corals and fishes: a tipping point that may limit reef recovery. Science 345, 892–897.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nelson, C.T., Gao, P., Jokisaari, J.R., Heikes, C., Adamo, C., Melville, A., Baek, S.-H., Folkman, C.M., Winchester, B., Gu, Y., Liu, Y., Zhang, K., Wang, E., Li, J., Chen, L.-Q., Eom, C.-B., Schlom, D.G. & Pan, X. (2011). Domain dynamics during ferroelectric switching. Science 334, 968–971.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Matte, G.S. (2015). Perfusion for Congenital Heart Surgery. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Pariante, C.M. & Lapiz-Bluhm, M.D. (Eds.). (2014). Behavioral Neurobiology of Stress-related Disorders. , Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lee, S. & Kang, S. (2012). A Study on Guiding Programmers’ Code Navigation with a Graphical Code Recommender. In Software Engineering Research,Management and Applications 2011, Studies in Computational Intelligence: 61–75. Lee, R. (Ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Zoology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). On brown dwarfs, storms of molten iron are always forecast [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1980). Overview of the Adult Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program and Its Operation in California ( No. 112127). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Catt, B.S. (2010). The reduction of surgical errors through a development of safety culture, teamwork, and communication. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Shear, M.D. & Haberman, M. (2017). An Overseas Trip Comes at a Crucial Time, but Trump Is a Reluctant Traveler. New York Times A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stearns, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Kirchner & Weil, 2000; Stearns, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kirchner & Weil, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Dixson, Abrego & Hay, 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Nelson et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Zoology
AbbreviationJ. Zool. (1987)
ISSN (print)0952-8369
ISSN (online)1469-7998
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles