How to format your references using the Journal of Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McClung, C.R. (2009). Circadian rhythms. Linking the loops. Science 323, 1440–1441.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pacheco-Vázquez, F. & Dorbolo, S. (2013). Rebound of a confined granular material: combination of a bouncing ball and a granular damper. Sci. Rep. 3, 2158.
A journal article with 3 authors
McDonald, J.J., Teder-Sälejärvi, W.A. & Ward, L.M. (2001). Multisensory integration and crossmodal attention effects in the human brain. Science 292, 1791.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kühl, M., Chen, M., Ralph, P.J., Schreiber, U. & Larkum, A.W.D. (2005). Ecology: a niche for cyanobacteria containing chlorophyll d. Nature 433, 820.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aldridge, P. & O’Dwyer, L. (2013). Practical Emergency and Critical Care Veterinary Nursing. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Vinel, A., Mehmood, R., Berbineau, M., Garcia, C.R., Huang, C.-M. & Chilamkurti, N. (Eds.). (2012). Communication Technologies for Vehicles: 4th International Workshop, Nets4Cars/Nets4Trains 2012, Vilnius, Lithuania, April 25-27, 2012. Proceedings. , Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Roberts, A.R. & Yeager, K.R. (2012). Tipi di crisi. In Gli interventi sulla crisi: Una guida pratica: 13–15. Yeager, K.R. (Ed.). Milano: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Zoology.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014). Ancient Reptilian Sea Monster Also Took To Land [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Developing and Using Questionnaires ( No. PEMD-10.1.7). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zoino, J.J. (2017). Field Methods, Sampling Strategies, Historical Documents, and Data Redundancy: A Study of Historic Tenant Farmsteads in Leflore County, Mississippi. Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M.M. (2017). A New Press Secretary, for a President at War With the Press. New York Times A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McClung, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (McClung, 2009; Pacheco-Vázquez & Dorbolo, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pacheco-Vázquez & Dorbolo, 2013)
  • Three authors: (McDonald, Teder-Sälejärvi & Ward, 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kühl et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Zoology
AbbreviationJ. Zool. (1987)
ISSN (print)0952-8369
ISSN (online)1469-7998
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles