How to format your references using the Journal of Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weiss, B.P. (2012). Planetary science. A vitrage of asteroid magnetism. Science 338, 897–898.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lumpkin, E.A. & Caterina, M.J. (2007). Mechanisms of sensory transduction in the skin. Nature 445, 858–865.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fleurquin, P., Ramasco, J.J. & Eguiluz, V.M. (2013). Systemic delay propagation in the US airport network. Sci. Rep. 3, 1159.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nakamura, D., Gunjishima, I., Yamaguchi, S., Ito, T., Okamoto, A., Kondo, H., Onda, S. & Takatori, K. (2004). Ultrahigh-quality silicon carbide single crystals. Nature 430, 1009–1012.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fitschen, K. (2013). Building Reliable Trading Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Huggenberger, P. & Epting, J. (Eds.). (2011). Urban Geology: Process-Oriented Concepts for Adaptive and Integrated Resource Management. Basel: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Boskou, S. & Engelbrekt, K. (2016). Keeping a Low Profile: Greek Strategic Culture and International Military Operations. In European Participation in International Operations: The Role of Strategic Culture: 77–99. Britz, M. (Ed.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Zoology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). The tax-funded assault on evolution in the classroom [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). U.S. Customs Service: Better Targeting of Airline Passengers for Personal Searches Could Produce Better Results ( No. GGD-00-38). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ayvaz, M.D. (2017). Generating Creativity in Teams: An Exploratory Case Study. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmidt, M.S. & Apuzzo, M. (2017). Mueller’s Moves Point to Inquiry Aimed at Trump. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Weiss, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Lumpkin & Caterina, 2007; Weiss, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lumpkin & Caterina, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Fleurquin, Ramasco & Eguiluz, 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Nakamura et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Zoology
AbbreviationJ. Zool. (1987)
ISSN (print)0952-8369
ISSN (online)1469-7998
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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