How to format your references using the Journal of Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Olveczky, B.P. (2014). Neuroscience: Ordered randomness in fly love songs. Nature 507, 177–178.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hyde, P.S. & Knudsen, E.I. (2002). The optic tectum controls visually guided adaptive plasticity in the owl’s auditory space map. Nature 415, 73–76.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ho Choi, S., Kim, B. & Frisbie, C.D. (2008). Electrical resistance of long conjugated molecular wires. Science 320, 1482–1486.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chao, C.-T., Lee, S.-Y., Yang, W.-S., Yen, C.-J., Chiang, C.-K., Huang, J.-W. & Hung, K.-Y. (2014). Serum vitamin D levels are positively associated with varicella zoster immunity in chronic dialysis patients. Sci. Rep. 4, 7371.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bucci, D. (2017). Analog Electronics for Measuring Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Güllich, A. & Krüger, M. (Eds.). (2013). Sport: Das Lehrbuch für das Sportstudium. , Bachelor. 1st edn. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Zeng, J.-Y., Cao, X.-H. & Gan, J.-Y. (2010). An Improvement of AdaBoost for Face Detection with Random Forests. In Advanced Intelligent Computing Theories and Applications: 6th International Conference on Intelligent Computing, ICIC 2010, Changsha, China, August 18-21, 2010. Proceedings, Communications in Computer and Information Science: 22–29. Huang, D.-S., McGinnity, M., Heutte, L. & Zhang, X.-P. (Eds.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Zoology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017). Neptune’s Formation May Have Been Smoother Than We Thought [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). National Airspace System: Comprehensive FAA Plan for Global Positioning System Is Needed ( No. RCED-95-26). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Winer, E.J. (2010). Elementary School Consolidation and Reconfiguration: An Autoethnographic Case Study. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Loomis, S.H. (2014). Making the Restaurant Part of the Family. New York Times D7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Olveczky, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Hyde & Knudsen, 2002; Olveczky, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hyde & Knudsen, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Ho Choi, Kim & Frisbie, 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Chao et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Zoology
AbbreviationJ. Zool. (1987)
ISSN (print)0952-8369
ISSN (online)1469-7998
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles