How to format your references using the Journal of Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, M. (2009). Time to turn off the lights. Nature 457, 27.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wulder, M.A. & Coops, N.C. (2014). Satellites: Make Earth observations open access. Nature 513, 30–31.
A journal article with 3 authors
Piovia-Scott, J., Spiller, D.A. & Schoener, T.W. (2011). Effects of experimental seaweed deposition on lizard and ant predation in an island food web. Science 331, 461–463.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yu, Y.-C., Yang, P.-M., Chuah, Q.-Y., Huang, Y.-H., Peng, C.-W., Lee, Y.-J. & Chiu, S.-J. (2013). Radiation-induced senescence in securin-deficient cancer cells promotes cell invasion involving the IL-6/STAT3 and PDGF-BB/PDGFR pathways. Sci. Rep. 3, 1675.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kurimoto, N., Fielding, D.I.K. & Musani, A.I. (2011). Endobronchial Ultrasonography. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Hsu, S. & Wu, Y.-Y. (Eds.). (2015). Education as Cultivation in Chinese Culture. , Education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Issues, Concerns and Prospects. Singapore: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Balliauw, M. & Decoster, X. (2012). Publishing Packages. In Pro NuGet: 81–103. Decoster, X. (Ed.). Berkeley, CA: Apress.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Zoology.

Blog post
Carpineti, C. (2017). Check Out What Comes Crawling Out Of This Elephant [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Highway Safety: Foresight Issues Challenge DOT’s Efforts to Assess and Respond to New Technology-Based Trends ( No. GAO-09-56). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sumner, I. (2010). Quantum wavepacket ab initio molecular dynamics: Simulating quantum nuclear effects in complex systems. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. (2017). Crossing to Grief’s Other Side. New York Times C7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Smith, 2009; Wulder & Coops, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wulder & Coops, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Piovia-Scott, Spiller & Schoener, 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Yu et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Zoology
AbbreviationJ. Zool. (1987)
ISSN (print)0952-8369
ISSN (online)1469-7998
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles