How to format your references using the Ethics and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethics and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Furukawa, Yuji. 2015. “PHYSICS. Frustrating a Quantum Magnet.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 350 (6261): 631–632.
A journal article with 2 authors
Voytas, Daniel F., and J. Keith Joung. 2009. “Plant Science. DNA Binding Made Easy.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 326 (5959): 1491–1492.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shanavas, K. V., David Parker, and David J. Singh. 2014. “Theoretical Study on the Role of Dynamics on the Unusual Magnetic Properties in MnBi.” Scientific Reports 4 (November): 7222.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
McNamara, B. R., P. E. J. Nulsen, M. W. Wise, D. A. Rafferty, C. Carilli, C. L. Sarazin, and E. L. Blanton. 2005. “The Heating of Gas in a Galaxy Cluster by X-Ray Cavities and Large-Scale Shock Fronts.” Nature 433 (7021): 45–47.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chowdhury, Debashish, and Dietrich Stauffer. 2005. Principles of Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Molinari, Enrico. 2010. Psicologia Clinica Del Dolore. Edited by Gianluca Castelnuovo. Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wawrzik, Thilo, Frank Ludwig, and Meinhard Schilling. 2012. “Magnetic Particle Imaging: Exploring Particle Mobility.” In Magnetic Particle Imaging: A Novel SPIO Nanoparticle Imaging Technique, edited by Thorsten M. Buzug and Jörn Borgert, 21–25. Springer Proceedings in Physics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethics and Education.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2015. “Study Claims Antarctic Ice Is Growing, But Net Gain Will Reverse In Decades.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. Mass Transit Grants: Risk of Misspent and Ineffectively Used Funds in FTA’s Chicago Region. RCED-92-53. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gleason, Russell. 2013. “Nanosphere Lithography Applied to Magnetic Thin Films.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Urbina, Ian. 2015. “Forced Labor for Cheap Fish.” New York Times, July 27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Furukawa 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Furukawa 2015; Voytas and Joung 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Voytas and Joung 2009)
  • Three authors: (Shanavas, Parker, and Singh 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (McNamara et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthics and Education
AbbreviationEthics Educ.
ISSN (print)1744-9642
ISSN (online)1744-9650

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