How to format your references using the Ethics and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethics and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, Paul. 2004. “Up for Review.” Nature 430 (6999): 591.
A journal article with 2 authors
Quinn, Thomas C., and Julie Overbaugh. 2005. “HIV/AIDS in Women: An Expanding Epidemic.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 308 (5728): 1582–1583.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sims, D. W., P. L. Andrews, and J. Z. Young. 2000. “Stomach Rinsing in Rays.” Nature 404 (6778): 566.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Siegert, F., G. Ruecker, A. Hinrichs, and A. A. Hoffmann. 2001. “Increased Damage from Fires in Logged Forests during Droughts Caused by El Niño.” Nature 414 (6862): 437–440.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McCrary, Stuart A. 2009. Mastering Financial Accounting Essentials. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Strong-Wilson, Teresa, Claudia Mitchell, Allnutt Susann, and Kathleen Pithouse-Morgan, eds. 2013. Productive Remembering and Social Agency. Transgressions, Cultural Studies and Education. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Wermers, Robert A., and Stefan K. Grebe. 2016. “Parathyroid Hormone Measurement Considerations in Primary Hyperparathyroidism.” In Hyperparathyroidism: A Clinical Casebook, edited by Ann E. Kearns and Robert A. Wermers, 37–45. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethics and Education.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2014. “New Finch Species Evolves Before Our Eyes.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1975. Inquiry Into Possible Computer Processing Problems in School Lunch Programs. LCD-75-114. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ge, Zhangbin. 2009. “Link Performance Analysis of Disaster Monitoring System.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), Sophia Kishkovsky. 2004. “World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Union Says A Million Strike.” New York Times, October 21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2004; Quinn and Overbaugh 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Quinn and Overbaugh 2005)
  • Three authors: (Sims, Andrews, and Young 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Siegert et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthics and Education
AbbreviationEthics Educ.
ISSN (print)1744-9642
ISSN (online)1744-9650

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