How to format your references using the Ethics and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethics and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greely, Henry T. 2011. “Get Ready for the Flood of Fetal Gene Screening.” Nature 469 (7330): 289–291.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dessler, Andrew E., and Steven C. Sherwood. 2009. “Atmospheric Science. A Matter of Humidity.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 323 (5917): 1020–1021.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barrett, Rowan D. H., Sean M. Rogers, and Dolph Schluter. 2008. “Natural Selection on a Major Armor Gene in Threespine Stickleback.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 322 (5899): 255–257.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Tang, Haibao, John E. Bowers, Xiyin Wang, Ray Ming, Maqsudul Alam, and Andrew H. Paterson. 2008. “Synteny and Collinearity in Plant Genomes.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 320 (5875): 486–488.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. 2000. Guidelines for Process Safety in Outsourced Manufacturing Operations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Cao, Ying. 2015. Radiation-Tolerant Delta-Sigma Time-to-Digital Converters. Edited by Paul Leroux and Michiel Steyaert. Analog Circuits and Signal Processing. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Dubey, Siba P., and Charles P. Molumi. 2015. “Salivary Glands.” In Color Atlas of Head and Neck Surgery: A Step-by-Step Guide, edited by Charles P. Molumi, 73–88. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethics and Education.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2017. “Building Has Started On The Extremely Large Telescope.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. Reporting of Student Loan Enrollment Status. HEHS-97-44R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ross, Tracey A. 2008. “The Surgical Technologist Learning Partnership: A Comparison of Factors in a Preceptor Relationship.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, Linda. 2007. “New Plan Approved for Kings Park Property.” New York Times, January 7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Greely 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Greely 2011; Dessler and Sherwood 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dessler and Sherwood 2009)
  • Three authors: (Barrett, Rogers, and Schluter 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Tang et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthics and Education
AbbreviationEthics Educ.
ISSN (print)1744-9642
ISSN (online)1744-9650

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