How to format your references using the Ethics and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethics and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shukla, Jagadish. 2007. “Atmosphere. Monsoon Mysteries.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 318 (5848): 204–205.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cole, Stewart T., and Pedro M. Alzari. 2005. “Microbiology. TB--a New Target, a New Drug.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 307 (5707): 214–215.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, Kelin, Yan Hu, and Jiangheng He. 2012. “Deformation Cycles of Subduction Earthquakes in a Viscoelastic Earth.” Nature 484 (7394): 327–332.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Yadav, Amol P., Romulo Fuentes, Hao Zhang, Thais Vinholo, Chi-Han Wang, Marco Aurelio M. Freire, and Miguel A. L. Nicolelis. 2014. “Chronic Spinal Cord Electrical Stimulation Protects against 6-Hydroxydopamine Lesions.” Scientific Reports 4 (January): 3839.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lesca, Humbert, and Nicolas Lesca. 2014. Strategic Decisions and Weak Signals. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Lévy, Pierre P., Bénédicte Le Grand, François Poulet, Michel Soto, Laszlo Darago, Laurent Toubiana, and Jean-François Vibert, eds. 2007. Pixelization Paradigm: First Visual Information Expert Workshop, VIEW 2006, Paris, France, April 24-25, 2006, Revised Selected Papers. Vol. 4370. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kelly, Philip F. 2012. “Class, Migration, and Identity in a Philippine Village.” In Living Intersections: Transnational Migrant Identifications in Asia, edited by Caroline Plüss and Kwok-Bun Chan, 53–70. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethics and Education.

Blog post
Carpineti, Chris. 2017. “NASA Has Developed Futuristic Chain Mail Fabric To Use In Space.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Uncertainties Surrounding IRS’ Fiscal Year 1992 Budget Request for Tax System Modernization. T-IMTEC-91-4. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzalez, Saida Noemi. 2010. “Analysis of the Impact of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act on California’s Children: A Report Card on the CalWORKs Program.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rao, Prashant S., and Mike Isaac. 2017. “Uber, Lamenting Cost of ‘Bad Reputation,’ Loses London License.” New York Times, September 22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Shukla 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Shukla 2007; Cole and Alzari 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cole and Alzari 2005)
  • Three authors: (Wang, Hu, and He 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Yadav et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthics and Education
AbbreviationEthics Educ.
ISSN (print)1744-9642
ISSN (online)1744-9650

Other styles