How to format your references using the Ethics and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethics and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
de Boer, Yvo. 2010. “Copenhagen Shows We Need Caution in Cancún.” Nature 468 (7323): 477.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mohd-Sarip, Adone, and C. Peter Verrijzer. 2004. “Molecular Biology. A Higher Order of Silence.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 306 (5701): 1484–1485.
A journal article with 3 authors
Allard, Patrick, Mike Burton, and Filippo Muré. 2005. “Spectroscopic Evidence for a Lava Fountain Driven by Previously Accumulated Magmatic Gas.” Nature 433 (7024): 407–410.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Quigg, Antonietta, Zoe V. Finkel, Andrew J. Irwin, Yair Rosenthal, Tung-Yuan Ho, John R. Reinfelder, Oscar Schofield, Francois M. M. Morel, and Paul G. Falkowski. 2003. “The Evolutionary Inheritance of Elemental Stoichiometry in Marine Phytoplankton.” Nature 425 (6955): 291–294.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mariño, Pablo Pavón. 2016. Optimization of Computer Networks - Modeling and Algorithms. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Lai, Ying-Cheng. 2011. Transient Chaos: Complex Dynamics on Finite Time Scales. Edited by Tamás Tél. Vol. 173. Applied Mathematical Sciences. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Nieman, Lynnette K. 2011. “The Diagnosis of Cushing’s Syndrome.” In Cushing’s Disease, edited by Brooke Swearingen and Beverly M. K. Biller, 45–55. Endocrine Updates. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethics and Education.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. “Scientists Just Found This Weird Jellyfish Deep In The Pacific Ocean.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2012. Information Technology Reform: Progress Made; More Needs to Be Done to Complete Actions and Measure Results. GAO-12-461. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nye, Kelly Marie. 2010. “Crème de Pêche.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, Mary Williams. 2012. “Conflict Is Issue In a Pension Suit.” New York Times, December 5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (de Boer 2010).
This sentence cites two references (de Boer 2010; Mohd-Sarip and Verrijzer 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mohd-Sarip and Verrijzer 2004)
  • Three authors: (Allard, Burton, and Muré 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Quigg et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthics and Education
AbbreviationEthics Educ.
ISSN (print)1744-9642
ISSN (online)1744-9650

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