How to format your references using the Ethics and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethics and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dolgin, Elie. 2012. “Devices: Artificial Inspiration.” Nature 489 (7417): S12-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Heinrich, Andreas, and Sebastian Loth. 2011. “Physics. A Logical Use for Atoms.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 332 (6033): 1039–1040.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sweeney, Alison, Christopher Jiggins, and Sönke Johnsen. 2003. “Insect Communication: Polarized Light as a Butterfly Mating Signal.” Nature 423 (6935): 31–32.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Rodewald, H. R., S. Paul, C. Haller, H. Bluethmann, and C. Blum. 2001. “Thymus Medulla Consisting of Epithelial Islets Each Derived from a Single Progenitor.” Nature 414 (6865): 763–768.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abdullaeva, Zhypargul. 2017. Nano- and Biomaterials. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Koukkari, Willard L. 2006. Introducing Biological Rhythms: A Primer on the Temporal Organization of Life, with Implications for Health, Society, Reproduction and the Natural Environment. Edited by Robert B. Sothern. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Fitz, Daniel, Thomas Jakschitz, and Bernd M. Rode. 2011. “Salt-Induced Peptide Formation in Chemical Evolution: Building Blocks Before RNA – Potential of Peptide Splicing Reactions.” In Origins of Life: The Primal Self-Organization, edited by Richard Egel, Dirk-Henner Lankenau, and Armen Y. Mulkidjanian, 109–127. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethics and Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Rare Quadruple Rainbow Spotted In New York.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. Public Transportation: New Starts Program Challenges and Preliminary Observations on Expediting Project Development. GAO-09-763T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Herman, Greg S. 2013. “Terahertz Local Oscillator via Difference Frequency Generation in Iii-v Semiconductors Using Frequency Stabilized Lasers.” Doctoral dissertation, Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, Erin. 1998. “Teaching Doctors Sensitivity On the Most Sensitive of Exams.” New York Times, June 2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dolgin 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Dolgin 2012; Heinrich and Loth 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Heinrich and Loth 2011)
  • Three authors: (Sweeney, Jiggins, and Johnsen 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Rodewald et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthics and Education
AbbreviationEthics Educ.
ISSN (print)1744-9642
ISSN (online)1744-9650

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