How to format your references using the Ethics and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethics and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rosenlof, Karen H. 2003. “Atmospheric Science. How Water Enters the Stratosphere.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 302 (5651): 1691–1692.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sonenberg, Nahum, and Arnim Pause. 2006. “Signal Transduction. Protein Synthesis and Oncogenesis Meet Again.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 314 (5798): 428–429.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cho, Mildred K., Glenn McGee, and David Magnus. 2006. “Research Conduct. Lessons of the Stem Cell Scandal.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 311 (5761): 614–615.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kim, Byoung Choul, Toshiki Matsuoka, Christopher Moraes, Jiexi Huang, M. D. Thouless, and Shuichi Takayama. 2013. “Guided Fracture of Films on Soft Substrates to Create Micro/Nano-Feature Arrays with Controlled Periodicity.” Scientific Reports 3 (October): 3027.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhong, Qing-Chang, and Tomas Hornik. 2012. Control of Power Inverters in Renewable Energy and Smart Grid Integration. Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Nguyen, Ngoc Thanh, Ryszard Kowalczyk, and Fatos Xhafa, eds. 2015. Transactions on Computational Collective Intelligence XIX. Vol. 9380. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Santana, Noemí, Julián de Almeida, Guadalupe Mengod, and Francesc Artigas. 2008. “Localization of 5-HT Receptors in the Mammalian Cortex.” In Serotonin and Sleep: Molecular, Functional and Clinical Aspects, edited by Jaime M. Monti, S. R. Pandi-Perumal, Barry L. Jacobs, and David J. Nutt, 135–153. Basel: Birkhäuser.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethics and Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “The Comet That Outgrew The Sun.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. Social Security Administration’s Systems Modernization Plan. T-IMTEC-89-11. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Verret, Jill Evancho. 2019. “Property Tax Limitations, School District Revenues, and Equity: Analyses of Pennsylvania’s Act One.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nordland, Rod. 2017. “Russia Signs Agreement Expanding Syrian Bases.” New York Times, January 20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rosenlof 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Rosenlof 2003; Sonenberg and Pause 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sonenberg and Pause 2006)
  • Three authors: (Cho, McGee, and Magnus 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kim et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthics and Education
AbbreviationEthics Educ.
ISSN (print)1744-9642
ISSN (online)1744-9650

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