How to format your references using the Ethics and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethics and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bear, G. 2000. “Deep Ice and DNA Languages.” Nature 403 (6766): 141.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhou, Zhiyan, and Shaolin Zheng. 2003. “The Missing Link in Ginkgo Evolution.” Nature 423 (6942): 821–822.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zobel, Mirijam, Reinhard B. Neder, and Simon A. J. Kimber. 2015. “Universal Solvent Restructuring Induced by Colloidal Nanoparticles.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 347 (6219): 292–294.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Seo, Jooyeok, Soohyeong Park, Sungho Nam, Hwajeong Kim, and Youngkyoo Kim. 2013. “Liquid Crystal-on-Organic Field-Effect Transistor Sensory Devices for Perceptive Sensing of Ultralow Intensity Gas Flow Touch.” Scientific Reports 3: 2452.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burnett, Robert, Anna Brunstrom, and Anders G. Nilsson. 2005. Perspectives on Multimedia. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Roeser, Sabine, Rafaela Hillerbrand, Per Sandin, and Martin Peterson, eds. 2013. Essentials of Risk Theory. SpringerBriefs in Philosophy. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Hall, John C. 2014. “Skin Disease in Solid Organ Transplant Patients.” In Skin Diseases in the Immunocompromised, edited by John C. Hall, 55–59. London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethics and Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Amazing GIF Shows What It Would Look Like If The Orion Nebula Was Only 4 Light Years Away.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2011. Electronic Government: Performance Measures for Projects Aimed at Promoting Innovation and Transparency Can Be Improved. GAO-11-775. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alajmi, Hamad. 2012. “Pre-Islamic Poetry and Speech Act Theory: Al-A`shá, Bishr Ibn Abī Khāzim, and al-Hujayjah.” Doctoral dissertation, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Drossman, Susan R., Elisa R. Port, and Emily B. Sonnenblick. 2015. “Why the Annual Mammogram Matters.” New York Times, October 28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bear 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Bear 2000; Zhou and Zheng 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhou and Zheng 2003)
  • Three authors: (Zobel, Neder, and Kimber 2015)
  • 4 or more authors: (Seo et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthics and Education
AbbreviationEthics Educ.
ISSN (print)1744-9642
ISSN (online)1744-9650

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