How to format your references using the Ethics and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethics and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Begun, David R. 2004. “Anthropology. The Earliest Hominins--Is Less More?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 303 (5663): 1478–1480.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yadlapalli, Swathi, and Yukiko M. Yamashita. 2013. “Chromosome-Specific Nonrandom Sister Chromatid Segregation during Stem-Cell Division.” Nature 498 (7453): 251–254.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yoshimura, Yumiko, Jami L. M. Dantzker, and Edward M. Callaway. 2005. “Excitatory Cortical Neurons Form Fine-Scale Functional Networks.” Nature 433 (7028): 868–873.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Riley, J. R., U. Greggers, A. D. Smith, D. R. Reynolds, and R. Menzel. 2005. “The Flight Paths of Honeybees Recruited by the Waggle Dance.” Nature 435 (7039): 205–207.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vogel, Werner, and Henry Kalb. 2010. Large-Scale Solar Thermal Power. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Zia Ul Haq, Muhammad. 2016. Anthocyanins and Human Health: Biomolecular and Therapeutic Aspects. Edited by Muhammad Riaz and Bashar Saad. SpringerBriefs in Food, Health, and Nutrition. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Cabrera Rivera, Luis, Luis M. Vilches-Blázquez, Miguel Torres-Ruiz, and Marco Antonio Moreno Ibarra. 2015. “Semantic Recommender System for Touristic Context Based on Linked Data.” In Information Fusion and Geographic Information Systems (IF&GIS’ 2015): Deep Virtualization for Mobile GIS, edited by Vasily Popovich, Christophe Claramunt, Manfred Schrenk, Kyrill Korolenko, and Jérôme Gensel, 77–89. Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethics and Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Scientists Create Functioning Whole Organ From Cells.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2010. Perchlorate: Occurrence Is Widespread but at Varying Levels; Federal Agencies Have Taken Some Actions to Respond to and Lessen Releases. GAO-10-769. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ward, Christian Salcedo. 2012. “Movin’ Around.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Crow, Kelly. 2001. “Neighbors Say an S.R.O. Is O.K., Just Make It Better.” New York Times, August 19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Begun 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Begun 2004; Yadlapalli and Yamashita 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yadlapalli and Yamashita 2013)
  • Three authors: (Yoshimura, Dantzker, and Callaway 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Riley et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthics and Education
AbbreviationEthics Educ.
ISSN (print)1744-9642
ISSN (online)1744-9650

Other styles