How to format your references using the Frontiers in Emotion Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Emotion Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Medzhitov, R. (2007). Recognition of microorganisms and activation of the immune response. Nature 449, 819–826.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stevens, B., and Feingold, G. (2009). Untangling aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation in a buffered system. Nature 461, 607–613.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mohr, J. T., Krout, M. R., and Stoltz, B. M. (2008). Natural products as inspiration for the development of asymmetric catalysis. Nature 455, 323–332.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Cheong, I., Huang, X., Bettegowda, C., Diaz, L. A., Jr, Kinzler, K. W., Zhou, S., et al. (2006). A bacterial protein enhances the release and efficacy of liposomal cancer drugs. Science 314, 1308–1311.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marroni, L., and Perdomo, I. (2013). Pricing and Hedging Financial Derivatives. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Jensen, T. H. ed. (2010). RNA Exosome. New York, NY: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Boer, J., Hoek, A., and Elzerman, H. (2006). “Social Desirability: Consumer Aspects,” in Sustainable Protein Production and Consumption: Pigs or Peas? Environment & Policy., eds. H. Aiking, J. de Boer, and J. Vereijken (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 99–127.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Emotion Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). How We Plan To Bring Dark Matter To Light. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987). Digests of Unpublished Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States, Vol. IV, No. 2. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Calderwood, A. (2014). Improving the singer’s understanding of bebop language: Transcription application.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Clarey, C. (2016). Open Champion Shows Vulnerability Off the Court, Not on It. New York Times, B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Medzhitov, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Medzhitov, 2007; Stevens and Feingold, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stevens and Feingold, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Cheong et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Emotion Science
AbbreviationFront. Psychol.
ISSN (online)1664-1078
ScopeGeneral Psychology

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