How to format your references using the Frontiers in Emotion Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Emotion Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Huber, M. (2008). Climate change. A hotter greenhouse? Science 321, 353–354.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilson, J. H., and Elledge, S. J. (2002). Cancer. BRCA2 enters the fray. Science 297, 1822–1823.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grieco, F., van Noordwijk, A. J., and Visser, M. E. (2002). Evidence for the effect of learning on timing of reproduction in blue tits. Science 296, 136–138.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Becks, L., Hilker, F. M., Malchow, H., Jürgens, K., and Arndt, H. (2005). Experimental demonstration of chaos in a microbial food web. Nature 435, 1226–1229.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Källén, A. (2011). Understanding Biostatistics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Lee, R., Ormandjieva, O., Abran, A., and Constantinides, C. eds. (2010). Software Engineering Research, Management and Applications 2010. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Karniel, A., and Reich, Y. (2011). “DSM Enhancements,” in Managing the Dynamics of New Product Development Processes: A New Product Lifecycle Management Paradigm, ed. Y. Reich (London: Springer), 51–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Emotion Science.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017). The World’s Rarest Wild Dog Has Not Gone Extinct After All. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000). Transit Grants: Need for Improved Predictability, Data, and Monitoring in Application Processing. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stevens, J. W. (2008). Perception of counselor ethical behavior: A quantitative look at dual relationships in Maine.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2012). Fierce Debt Puts Pensions at Risk In Puerto Rico. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Huber, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Wilson and Elledge, 2002; Huber, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wilson and Elledge, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Becks et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Emotion Science
AbbreviationFront. Psychol.
ISSN (online)1664-1078
ScopeGeneral Psychology

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