How to format your references using the Esophagus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Esophagus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. de Waal FBM. Behavior. Animal conformists. Science. 2013;340:437–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Birney E, Soranzo N. Human genomics: The end of the start for population sequencing. Nature. 2015;526:52–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Mutanen M, Kaila L, Tabell J. Wide-ranging barcoding aids discovery of one-third increase of species richness in presumably well-investigated moths. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2901.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Hiasa M, Miyaji T, Haruna Y, Takeuchi T, Harada Y, Moriyama S, et al. Identification of a mammalian vesicular polyamine transporter. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6836.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Stirling E. Valuing Older People. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
1. Weyand B, Dominici M, Hass R, Jacobs R, Kasper C, editors. Mesenchymal Stem Cells - Basics and Clinical Application II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Barrero DF, Camacho D, R-Moreno MD. A Framework for Agent-Based Evaluation of Genetic Algorithms. In: Papadopoulos GA, Badica C, editors. Intelligent Distributed Computing III: Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing – IDC 2009, Ayia Napa, Cyprus,October 2009. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 31–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Esophagus.

Blog post
1. Davis J. Serbian Orthodox Church Demands Museum Hands Over Ashes Of Nikola Tesla [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/serbian-orthodox-church-demands-museum-hands-over-ashes-of-nikola-tesla/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. FAA Appropriation Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Mar. Report No.: T-RCED-88-32.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Waterman MA. Housing for the homeless mentally ill population: A grant writing project [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Baker AL. Push to Rid City of Classrooms That Are Anything but Temporary. New York Times. 2014 Mar 31;A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEsophagus
AbbreviationEsophagus
ISSN (print)1612-9059
ISSN (online)1612-9067
ScopeGastroenterology

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