How to format your references using the Esophagus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Esophagus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Canup RM. Forming a Moon with an Earth-like composition via a giant impact. Science. 2012;338:1052–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Liu Q, Wang X. Opinion dynamics with similarity-based random neighbors. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2968.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Ryu WS, Berry RM, Berg HC. Torque-generating units of the flagellar motor of Escherichia coli have a high duty ratio. Nature. 2000;403:444–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ohlrogge J, Allen D, Berguson B, Dellapenna D, Shachar-Hill Y, Stymne S. Energy. Driving on biomass. Science. 2009;324:1019–20.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Martinelli RJ, Waddell JM, Rahschulte TJ. Program Management for Improved Business Results. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1. Winther R, Gran BA, Dahll G, editors. Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security: 24th International Conference, SAFECOMP 2005, Fredrikstad, Norway, September 28-30, 2005. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Juth N, Munthe C. Case Studies. In: Munthe C, editor. The Ethics of Screening in Health Care and Medicine: Serving Society or Serving the Patient? Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012. p. 99–126.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Esophagus.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. Astronomers Find Quasar With Temperatures Hotter Than Thought Possible [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/space/astronomers-find-quasar-with-temperatures-hotter-than-thought-possible/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. HUD Information Technology: More Work Remains to Implement Necessary Management Controls. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012 Mar. Report No.: GAO-12-580T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Nonu ME. Eagle Lake Climate Change during the Holocene and during the Last 100 Years [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Slotnik DE. Pete Flynn, 79; Kept Mets’ 3 Fields Trim. New York Times. 2017 Jun 23;B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEsophagus
AbbreviationEsophagus
ISSN (print)1612-9059
ISSN (online)1612-9067
ScopeGastroenterology

Other styles