How to format your references using the Esophagus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Esophagus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Crowder R. Applied physics. Toward robots that can sense texture by touch. Science. 2006;312:1478–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Waitukaitis SR, Jaeger HM. Impact-activated solidification of dense suspensions via dynamic jamming fronts. Nature. 2012;487:205–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Browne J, Tunnacliffe A, Burnell A. Anhydrobiosis: plant desiccation gene found in a nematode. Nature. 2002;416:38.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Kim K-C, Reed CA, Elliott DW, Mueller LJ, Tham F, Lin L, et al. Crystallographic evidence for a free silylium ion. Science. 2002;297:825–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Malhotra G. Chemical Process Simplification. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Leong SPL, editor. Cancer Metastasis And The Lymphovascular System: Basis For Rational Therapy. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Tristão JC, Ardisson JD, Sansiviero MTC, Lago RM. Reduction of hematite with ethanol to produce magnetic nanoparticles of Fe3O4, Fe1 − x O or Fe0 coated with carbon. In: Desimoni J, Ramos CP, Arcondo B, Saccone FD, Mercader RC, editors. LACAME 2008: Proceedings of the 11th Latin American Conference on the Applications of the Mössbauer Effect, (LACAME 2006) held in La Plata, 9-14 November 2008. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 15–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Esophagus.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Rio 2016 Olympics: How Sick Could You Actually Get From Drinking The Water? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aircraft Preservation: Preserving DOD Aircraft Significant to Aviation History. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 May. Report No.: NSIAD-88-170BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Lee Y-J. Copying and summarizing: Possible tools to develop English reading and writing for university students of different proficiency levels in Korea [Doctoral dissertation]. [Bloomington, IN]: Indiana University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Pilon M. Texas Association Criticized for Ruling on Jewish Team. New York Times. 2012 Mar 1;B16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEsophagus
ISSN (print)1612-9059
ISSN (online)1612-9067

Other styles