How to format your references using the Esophagus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Esophagus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Isselbacher KJ. Retrospective. Paul C. Zamecnik (1912-2009). Science. 2009;326:1359.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Divakaruni AS, Murphy AN. Cell biology. A mitochondrial mystery, solved. Science. 2012;337:41–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Saitta EKH, Legron-Rodriguez T, Bowdon MA. IBI* series winner. An inquiry into the water around us. Science. 2013;341:971–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Zhang W, Tong Y, Wang H, Chen L, Ou L, Wang X, et al. Emission of metals from pelletized and uncompressed biomass fuels combustion in rural household stoves in China. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5611.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Holloway M, Nwaoha C. Dictionary of Industrial Terms. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1. Noguchi M, editor. ZEMCH: Toward the Delivery of Zero Energy Mass Custom Homes. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Kalnins EG, Kress JM, Miller W. Fine Structure for Second Order Superintegrable Systems. In: Eastwood M, Miller W, editors. Symmetries and Overdetermined Systems of Partial Differential Equations. New York, NY: Springer; 2008. p. 77–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Esophagus.

Blog post
1. Fang J. How Borneo’s Unique Mountain Wildlife Evolved [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Head Start: Further Development Could Allow Results of New Test to Be Used for Decision Making. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005 May. Report No.: GAO-05-343.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Zimmerman KL. Perceived and preferred organizational culture on behavior intentions in the hospitality industry [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. St. John Kelly E. The Hatman Closeth. New York Times. 1994 Jan 30;1310.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEsophagus
ISSN (print)1612-9059
ISSN (online)1612-9067

Other styles