How to format your references using the Animal Behaviour citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Animal Behaviour. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McFarland, E. (2012). Chemistry. Unconventional chemistry for unconventional natural gas. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6105), 340–342.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hoffmann, D. E., & Rothenberg, K. H. (2005). Science and law. When should judges admit or compel genetic tests? Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5746), 241–242.
A journal article with 3 authors
Robinson, D. P., Das, S., & Watts, A. B. (2006). Earthquake rupture stalled by a subducting fracture zone. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5777), 1203–1205.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Diskin, R., Scheid, J. F., Marcovecchio, P. M., West, A. P., Jr, Klein, F., Gao, H., Gnanapragasam, P. N. P., Abadir, A., Seaman, M. S., Nussenzweig, M. C., & Bjorkman, P. J. (2011). Increasing the potency and breadth of an HIV antibody by using structure-based rational design. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6060), 1289–1293.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chu, L.-Y., & Wang, W. (2017). Microfluidics for Advanced Functional Polymeric Materials. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
DeMaris, A. (2013). Converting Data into Evidence: A Statistics Primer for the Medical Practitioner (S. H. Selman, Ed.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Devlin, N., & Parkin, D. (2007). Guidance to users of EQ-5D value sets. In A. Szende, M. Oppe, & N. Devlin (Eds.), EQ-5D Value Sets: Inventory, Comparative Review and User Guide (pp. 39–52). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Animal Behaviour.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, February 6). Woman Finds Literal Nightmare Crawling Around Inside Her Head. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2013). Information Resellers: Consumer Privacy Framework Needs to Reflect Changes in Technology and the Marketplace (GAO-13-663). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zepeda, S. (2012). Housing First assertive community treatment program for adults with schizophrenia and co-occurring substance abuse: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S. (2001, June 10). The “Roswell” Army Fights for Its Show on the Web. New York Times, 232.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McFarland, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Hoffmann & Rothenberg, 2005; McFarland, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hoffmann & Rothenberg, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Robinson et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Diskin et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleAnimal Behaviour
AbbreviationAnim. Behav.
ISSN (print)0003-3472
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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