How to format your references using the ergoscience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ergoscience. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fabian AC. Astronomy. Variable High-Energy Gamma Rays from the Elliptical Galaxy M87. Science 2006; 314(5804): 1398–1399.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schmerr N, Garnero EJ. Upper Mantle Discontinuity Topography from Thermal and Chemical Heterogeneity. Science 2007; 318(5850): 623–626.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moray C, Game ET, Maxted N. Prioritising in Situ Conservation of Crop Resources: A Case Study of African Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata). Sci. Rep. 2014; 4: 5247.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Andrus CFT, Crowe DE, Sandweiss DH, Reitz EJ, Romanek CS. Otolith Delta 18O Record of Mid-Holocene Sea Surface Temperatures in Peru. Science 2002; 295(5559): 1508–1511.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shreves R. Joomla!® Bible. Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc. 2009.
An edited book
Cao L, Zeng Y, Symeonidis AL, Gorodetsky VI, Yu PS, Singh MP, editors. Agents and Data Mining Interaction: 8th International Workshop, ADMI 2012, Valencia, Spain, June 4-5, 2012, Revised Selected Papers, vol. 7607. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Strasburger H, Rentschler I. Pattern Recognition in Direct and Indirect View. In:. Osaka N, Rentschler I, Biederman I (eds). Object Recognition, Attention, and Action. Tokyo: Springer Japan 2007; 41–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ergoscience.

Blog post
Luntz S. University Of Toronto Teaches Students That Cancer Is Good And Vaccines Are Unsafe. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Further Steps Needed to Strengthen the Security of Commercial Airport Perimeters and Access Controls. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gowetski DB. Manipulation of DNA Topology Using an Artificial DNA-Looping Protein. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. For ‘American Idol,’ a Possible Comeback. New York Times 2017: C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleergoscience
ISSN (print)1861-6348
ISSN (online)1861-6356

Other styles