How to format your references using the ergoscience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ergoscience. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thomas DJ. Evidence for Deep-Water Production in the North Pacific Ocean during the Early Cenozoic Warm Interval. Nature 2004; 430(6995): 65–68.
A journal article with 2 authors
Saarela J, Finnäs F. Infant Mortality and Ethnicity in an Indigenous European Population: Novel Evidence from the Finnish Population Register. Sci. Rep. 2014; 4: 4214.
A journal article with 3 authors
Flower TP, Gribble M, Ridley AR. Deception by Flexible Alarm Mimicry in an African Bird. Science 2014; 344(6183): 513–516.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gaester K, Fonseca LAM, Luiz O, Assone T, Fontes AS, Costa F, Duarte AJS, Casseb J. Human Papillomavirus Infection in Oral Fluids of HIV-1-Positive Men: Prevalence and Risk Factors. Sci. Rep. 2014; 4: 6592.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chowdhury D, Stauffer D. Principles of Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA 2005.
An edited book
Stadler M, Dersch P, editors. How to Overcome the Antibiotic Crisis: Facts, Challenges, Technologies and Future Perspectives, vol. 398. Cham: Springer International Publishing 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Mazlan D, Abdul Awal ASM. Mechanical Properties of Cement Composites Incorporating Oil Palm Stem Fiber. In:. Hassan R, Yusoff M, Ismail Z, Amin NM, Fadzil MA (eds). InCIEC 2013: Proceedings of the International Civil and Infrastructure Engineering Conference 2013. Singapore: Springer 2014; 51–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ergoscience.

Blog post
Fang J. Ancient Artwork Depicts Collapse of Egypt’s Animal Communities. IFLScience 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Business Modernization: Some Progress Made toward Implementing GAO Recommendations Related to NASA’s Integrated Financial Management Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mc Adams AN. School Psychologists’ Perceptions of Procedural Fidelity in Special Education. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Conklin K. Honest Work, Honest Pay. New York Times 2005: 14NJ15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleergoscience
ISSN (print)1861-6348
ISSN (online)1861-6356

Other styles