How to format your references using the Breast Cancer Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Breast Cancer Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. de Waal FBM. Darwin’s last laugh. Nature. 2009;460:175.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Nisbet EG, Chappellaz J. Atmospheric science. Shifting gear, quickly. Science. 2009;324:477–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Farihi J, Gänsicke BT, Koester D. Evidence for water in the rocky debris of a disrupted extrasolar minor planet. Science. 2013;342:218–20.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Friedrich R, Panizzi P, Fuentes-Prior P, Richter K, Verhamme I, Anderson PJ, et al. Staphylocoagulase is a prototype for the mechanism of cofactor-induced zymogen activation. Nature. 2003;425:535–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Dickson EFG. Personal Protective Equipment for Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Hazards. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1. Michelsen J. Service Virtualization: Reality is Overrated. English J, editor. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Lund MS, Refsdal A, Stølen K. 4 Semantics of UML Models for Dynamic Behavior. In: Giese H, Karsai G, Lee E, Rumpe B, Schätz B, editors. Model-Based Engineering of Embedded Real-Time Systems: International Dagstuhl Workshop, Dagstuhl Castle, Germany, November 4-9, 2007 Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 77–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Breast Cancer Research.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Brain-Eating Amoeba Strikes The U.S. Again. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: FAA Has An Opportunity to Enhance Safety and Improve Oversight of Initial Pilot Training. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012 Mar. Report No.: GAO-12-537T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Portwood B. Inclusive Special and General Education Secondary Teachers’ Attitudes towards the Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in the General Education Setting [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. George N. Still Too Good, Too Bad or Invisible. New York Times. 2013 Feb 17;AR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBreast Cancer Research
ISSN (online)1465-542X

Other styles