How to format your references using the Breast Cancer Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Breast Cancer Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Shalaev VM. Physics. Transforming light. Science. 2008;322:384–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Chen Y, Dorn GW 2nd. PINK1-phosphorylated mitofusin 2 is a Parkin receptor for culling damaged mitochondria. Science. 2013;340:471–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Pearson PN, Foster GL, Wade BS. Atmospheric carbon dioxide through the Eocene-Oligocene climate transition. Nature. 2009;461:1110–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Fujita M, Takahashi S, Tanaka Y, Asano T, Noda S. Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals. Science. 2005;308:1296–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. MacIsaac B, Langton R. Gas Turbine Propulsion Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
1. Isokoski P, Springare J, editors. Haptics: Perception, Devices, Mobility, and Communication: International Conference, EuroHaptics 2012, Tampere, Finland, June 13-15, 2012. Proceedings, Part I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. L’Hostis A. Theoretical Models of Time-Space: The Role of Transport Networks in the Shrinking and Shrivelling of Geographical Space. In: Rozenblat C, Melançon G, editors. Methods for Multilevel Analysis and Visualisation of Geographical Networks. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. p. 55–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Breast Cancer Research.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Should WHO Administer Blood From Ebola Survivors As Treatment? IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Digests of Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States, Vol. IV, No. 6. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993 Mar. Report No.: 149845.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ratzlaff K. Dynamics of chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) infection in amphibians in the Rincon Mountains and Tucson, Arizona [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Bernard TS. Reading, Writing and Rip-Offs. New York Times. 2016 Oct 21;BU1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBreast Cancer Research
ISSN (online)1465-542X

Other styles