How to format your references using the Actuators citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Actuators. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. First for Physics Chicago. Nature 2003, 424, 706–707.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sung, S.; Amasino, R.M. Vernalization in Arabidopsis Thaliana Is Mediated by the PHD Finger Protein VIN3. Nature 2004, 427, 159–164.
A journal article with 3 authors
Izawa, Y.; Pun, D.; Stahl, S.S. Palladium-Catalyzed Aerobic Dehydrogenation of Substituted Cyclohexanones to Phenols. Science 2011, 333, 209–213.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gröning, O.; Wang, S.; Yao, X.; Pignedoli, C.A.; Borin Barin, G.; Daniels, C.; Cupo, A.; Meunier, V.; Feng, X.; Narita, A.; et al. Engineering of Robust Topological Quantum Phases in Graphene Nanoribbons. Nature 2018, 560, 209–213.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety Guidelines for Technical Planning for On-Site Emergencies; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 1995; ISBN 9780470938034.
An edited book
Song, W. Interworking of Wireless LANs and Cellular Networks; Zhuang, W., Ed.; SpringerBriefs in Computer Science; Springer: New York, NY, 2012; ISBN 9781461443780.
A chapter in an edited book
Greve, A.; Bremer, M. The Variable Thermal Environment. In Thermal Design and Thermal Behaviour of Radio Telescopes and their Enclosures; Bremer, M., Ed.; Astrophysics and Space Science Library; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; pp. 55–83 ISBN 9783642038662.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Actuators.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. Nine Weird And Wonderful Facts About Death And Funeral Practices Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Greater Use of Satellite Telecommunications To Link ADP Facilities Could Save Millions; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1981;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Glennie, N.T. Examining Trust Factor Relationships in the Online Business-to-Consumer Environment. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University: Scottsdale, AZ, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E. Ghosts Of Montero, By the Sea. New York Times 1995, 134.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleActuators
ISSN (online)2076-0825

Other styles