How to format your references using the EPL citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EPL. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ghahramani Z 2000 Computational neuroscience. Building blocks of movement Nature 407 682–3
A journal article with 2 authors
Fitter A H and Fitter R S R 2002 Rapid changes in flowering time in British plants Science 296 1689–91
A journal article with 3 authors
Levy E D, Landry C R and Michnick S W 2010 Cell signaling. Signaling through cooperation Science 328 983–4
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Miller M M, Melbourne T, Johnson D J and Sumner W Q 2002 Periodic slow earthquakes from the Cascadia subduction zone Science 295 2423

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ray Chaudhuri N, Chaudhuri B, Majumder R and Yazdani A 2014 Multi-Terminal Direct-Current Grids (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc)
An edited book
Zhou G, Li J, Zhao D and Feng Y 2013 Natural Language Processing and Chinese Computing: Second CCF Conference, NLPCC 2013, Chongqing, China, November 15-19, 2013, Proceedings vol 400 (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Denker M and Grün S 2016 Designing Workflows for the Reproducible Analysis of Electrophysiological Data Brain-Inspired Computing: Second International Workshop, BrainComp 2015, Cetraro, Italy, July 6-10, 2015, Revised Selected Papers Lecture Notes in Computer Science ed K Amunts, L Grandinetti, T Lippert and N Petkov (Cham: Springer International Publishing) pp 58–72

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EPL.

Blog post
Andrew E 2015 Found: The Missing Part Of Brain’s ‘Internal Compass’ IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2001 District of Columbia: D.C. Public Schools Inappropriately Used Gas Utility Contract for Renovations (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ressler K M 2008 The path to leadership for Native American women at North Dakota tribal colleges Doctoral dissertation (Minneapolis, MN: Capella University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson G 2015 ‘Cheaters’ Give Rise to Cancer New York Times D4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEPL
ISSN (print)0295-5075
ISSN (online)1286-4854
ScopeGeneral Physics and Astronomy

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