How to format your references using the EPL citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EPL. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
John P 2001 Applied physics. Toward diamond lasers Science 292 1847–8
A journal article with 2 authors
Brainard M S and Doupe A J 2000 Interruption of a basal ganglia-forebrain circuit prevents plasticity of learned vocalizations Nature 404 762–6
A journal article with 3 authors
Lawrence T, Hageman T and Balkwill F 2007 Cancer. Sex, cytokines, and cancer Science 317 51–2
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Li W, Lee S, Ma M, Kim S M, Guye P, Pancoast J R, Anderson D G, Weiss R, Lee R T and Hammond P T 2013 Microbead-based biomimetic synthetic neighbors enhance survival and function of rat pancreatic β-cells Sci. Rep. 3 2863

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chandru V and Hooker J 1999 Optimization Methods for Logical Inference (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Fujita S 2009 Quantum Theory of Conducting Matter: Superconductivity ed K Ito and S Godoy (New York, NY: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Borges P, Monteiro P and Machado R J 2012 Mapping RUP Roles to Small Software Development Teams Software Quality. Process Automation in Software Development: 4th International Conference, SWQD 2012, Vienna, Austria, January 17-19, 2012. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing ed S Biffl, D Winkler and J Bergsmann (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 59–70

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EPL.

Blog post
Andrew E 2015 How A One Night Stand In The Ice Age Affects Us All Today IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2009 Transportation Worker Identification Credential: Progress Made in Enrolling Workers and Activating Credentials but Evaluation Plan Needed to Help Inform the Implementation of Card Readers (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Valdovinos G 2012 Entre familia (among family): A parent training and social support program for Latino families. A grant proposal Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B 2017 Country Breakthrough On the Billboard Chart New York Times C3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEPL
ISSN (print)0295-5075
ISSN (online)1286-4854
ScopeGeneral Physics and Astronomy

Other styles