How to format your references using the EPL citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EPL. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kemp M 2002 Science in culture Nature 420 364
A journal article with 2 authors
Romanov-Michailidis F and Rovis T 2015 Organic chemistry: Natural polarity inverted Nature 523 417–8
A journal article with 3 authors
Plata G, Henry C S and Vitkup D 2015 Long-term phenotypic evolution of bacteria Nature 517 369–72
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Meredith R W, Janečka J E, Gatesy J, Ryder O A, Fisher C A, Teeling E C, Goodbla A, Eizirik E, Simão T L L, Stadler T, Rabosky D L, Honeycutt R L, Flynn J J, Ingram C M, Steiner C, Williams T L, Robinson T J, Burk-Herrick A, Westerman M, Ayoub N A, Springer M S and Murphy W J 2011 Impacts of the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution and KPg extinction on mammal diversification Science 334 521–4

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chateigner D 2013 Combined Analysis (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Gallo D, Paladini L and Pustorino P 2014 Same-Sex Couples before National, Supranational and International Jurisdictions (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Saunus J M, McCart-Reed A, Momeny M, Cummings M and Lakhani S R 2013 Breast Cancer Heterogeneity in Primary and Metastatic Disease Breast Cancer Metastasis and Drug Resistance: Progress and Prospects ed A Ahmad (New York, NY: Springer) pp 65–95

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EPL.

Blog post
Fang J 2014 Ant Fight! Dopamine Turns Workers Into Queens IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1988 ADP Planning: Challenges at the U.S. Transportation Command (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Leak S C 2010 Building community capacity to meet the needs of our aging society: Interdisciplinary competency development for professionals Doctoral dissertation (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L 2005 At Museum Shops, Unusual Selections New York Times 14LI12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEPL
ISSN (print)0295-5075
ISSN (online)1286-4854
ScopeGeneral Physics and Astronomy

Other styles