How to format your references using the EPL citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EPL. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greenberg E P 2003 Bacterial communication: tiny teamwork Nature 424 134
A journal article with 2 authors
Meharg A A and Killham K 2003 Environment: A pre-industrial source of dioxins and furans Nature 421 909–10
A journal article with 3 authors
Petrie R J, Koo H and Yamada K M 2014 Generation of compartmentalized pressure by a nuclear piston governs cell motility in a 3D matrix Science 345 1062–5
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Kasahara S, Miyoshi Y, Yokota S, Mitani T, Kasahara Y, Matsuda S, Kumamoto A, Matsuoka A, Kazama Y, Frey H U, Angelopoulos V, Kurita S, Keika K, Seki K and Shinohara I 2018 Pulsating aurora from electron scattering by chorus waves Nature 554 337–40

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dant S 2016 Losing Eden (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)
An edited book
Matsagar V 2015 Advances in Structural Engineering: Materials, Volume Three (New Delhi: Springer India)
A chapter in an edited book
Holmberg K, Eriksson-Backa K and Ek S 2014 Tweeting about Diabetes and Diets – Content and Conversational Connections Safe and Secure Cities: 5th International Conference on Well-Being in the Information Society, WIS 2014, Turku, Finland, August 18-20, 2014. Proceedings Communications in Computer and Information Science ed K Saranto, M Castrén, T Kuusela, S Hyrynsalmi and S Ojala (Cham: Springer International Publishing) pp 46–56

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EPL.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J 2017 Long Duration Spaceflight Dramatically Decreases Your Ability To Do Exercise IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2003 Airport Passenger Screening: Preliminary Observations on Progress Made and Challenges Remaining (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Morton W G 2015 Isolating mycorrhizal fungi from Spiranthes vernalis for subsequent in vitro seed germination Doctoral dissertation (Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lear S 2011 Beyond the Edge of the World New York Times BR11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEPL
ISSN (print)0295-5075
ISSN (online)1286-4854
ScopeGeneral Physics and Astronomy

Other styles