How to format your references using the AAPS PharmSciTech citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for AAPS PharmSciTech. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Fröbisch J. Paleontology. On dental occlusion and saber teeth. Science. 2011;331:1525–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Mather J, Mao M. Astronomy: A conversation about observation. Nature. 2012;490:S5-7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Margulies L, Winther G, Poulsen HF. In situ measurement of grain rotation during deformation of polycrystals. Science. 2001;291:2392–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ahn TK, Avenson TJ, Ballottari M, Cheng Y-C, Niyogi KK, Bassi R, et al. Architecture of a charge-transfer state regulating light harvesting in a plant antenna protein. Science. 2008;320:794–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Sofronas A. Analytical Troubleshooting of Process Machinery and Pressure Vessels. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1. Dáger R. Wave Progagation, Observation and Control in 1-d Flexible Multi-Structures. Zuazua E, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Malawer MM, Kellar-Graney KL. Tumors of the Musculoskeletal System. In: Wiesel SW, Delahay JN, editors. Essentials of Orthopedic Surgery. New York, NY: Springer; 2011. p. 99–171.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for AAPS PharmSciTech.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Yep, That Viral Video Of A Shark Attacking A Porn Star Was Bullshit [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Child Care and Early Childhood Education: More Information Sharing and Program Review by HHS Could Enhance Access for Families with Limited English Proficiency (Spanish Version). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006 Aug. Report No.: GAO-06-949.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Brister MH. Attitudes of agriscience teachers, counselors, administrators, and students toward selected agriscience programs in Mississippi [Doctoral dissertation]. [Mississippi State, MS]: Mississippi State University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Chozick A. Jimmy Wales Is Not an Internet Billionare. New York Times. 2013 Jun 27;MM28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAAPS PharmSciTech
AbbreviationAAPS PharmSciTech
ISSN (online)1530-9932
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Aquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
General Medicine
Drug Discovery
Pharmaceutical Science

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