How to format your references using the Environments citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environments. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Westall, F. Evolution. Life on the Early Earth: A Sedimentary View. Science 2005, 308, 366–367.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mitra, P.P.; Stark, J.B. Nonlinear Limits to the Information Capacity of Optical Fibre Communications. Nature 2001, 411, 1027–1030.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hernández, J.V.; Kay, E.R.; Leigh, D.A. A Reversible Synthetic Rotary Molecular Motor. Science 2004, 306, 1532–1537.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Van Damme, R.; Wilson, R.S.; Vanhooydonck, B.; Aerts, P. Performance Constraints in Decathletes. Nature 2002, 415, 755–756.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Loriaux, D.L. A Biographical History of Endocrinology; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2016; ISBN 9781119205791.
An edited book
Submarine Mass Movements and Their Consequences: 7th International Symposium; Lamarche, G., Mountjoy, J., Bull, S., Hubble, T., Krastel, S., Lane, E., Micallef, A., Moscardelli, L., Mueller, C., Pecher, I., Woelz, S., Eds.; Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research; 1st ed. 2016.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; Vol. 41; ISBN 9783319209784.
A chapter in an edited book
Sanchez-Sotelo, J. Open Reduction and Internal Fixation for Distal Humerus Fractures and Nonunions. In Essential Techniques in Elbow Surgery; Antuña, S., Barco, R., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 41–58 ISBN 9783319315737.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environments.

Blog post
Andrew, D. Common Lumps And Bumps On And Under The Skin: What Are They? Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Missouri River Navigation: Data on Commodity Shipments for Four States Served by the Missouri River and Two States Served by Both the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2009;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Seger, J.L. The Occupy Movement: Signs of Cultural Shifts in Group Processes Shaped by Place. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute: Carpinteria, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. ‘Big Rich Texas’ Becomes an Unlikely Reality-TV Hit. New York Times 2012, A33B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironments
ISSN (online)2076-3298

Other styles