How to format your references using the Environments citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environments. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Turner, D.L. Space Science: Near-Earth Space Shows Its Stripes. Nature 2014, 507, 308–309.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lucadamo, G.; Medlin, D.L. Geometric Origin of Hexagonal Close Packing at a Grain Boundary in Gold. Science 2003, 300, 1272–1275.
A journal article with 3 authors
Manabe, M.; Barrett, P.M.; Isaji, S. Palaeontology. A Refugium for Relics? Nature 2000, 404, 953.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Llave, C.; Xie, Z.; Kasschau, K.D.; Carrington, J.C. Cleavage of Scarecrow-like MRNA Targets Directed by a Class of Arabidopsis MiRNA. Science 2002, 297, 2053–2056.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
von Eye, A.; Mun, E.-Y. Log-Linear Modeling; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2012; ISBN 9781118391778.
An edited book
Gilsanz, V. Hand Bone Age: A Digital Atlas of Skeletal Maturity; Ratib, O., Ed.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; ISBN 9783642237614.
A chapter in an edited book
Houchens, N.; Kim, C.S. The Application of Lean in the Healthcare Sector: Theory and Practical Examples. In Lean Thinking for Healthcare; Wickramasinghe, N., Al-Hakim, L., Gonzalez, C., Tan, J., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2014; pp. 43–53 ISBN 9781461480358.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environments.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Marine Animals Found Thriving In One Of World’s Most Extreme Environments Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Information Technology: Enterprise Architecture Use Across the Federal Government Can Be Improved; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2002;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kaplan, J.W. Not a Sonata: A Conception of Sonata-Allegro Form and a Consideration of Two Marimba Works from a Langerian Perspective. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. When Turning Away Customers Will Help the Bottom Line. New York Times 2015, B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironments
ISSN (online)2076-3298

Other styles