How to format your references using the Environments citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environments. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Risaliti, G. Astrophysics: Cosmic Lens Reveals Spinning Black Hole. Nature 2014, 507, 173–174.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bray, G.A.; Tartaglia, L.A. Medicinal Strategies in the Treatment of Obesity. Nature 2000, 404, 672–677.
A journal article with 3 authors
Beldade, P.; Koops, K.; Brakefield, P.M. Developmental Constraints versus Flexibility in Morphological Evolution. Nature 2002, 416, 844–847.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Keiling, A.; Wygant, J.R.; Cattell, C.A.; Mozer, F.S.; Russell, C.T. The Global Morphology of Wave Poynting Flux: Powering the Aurora. Science 2003, 299, 383–386.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stevens, B.A.; Roediger, E. Breaking Negative Relationship Patterns; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2016; ISBN 9781119162803.
An edited book
Recovery from the Indian Ocean Tsunami: A Ten-Year Journey; Shaw, R., Ed.; Disaster Risk Reduction, Methods, Approaches and Practices; Springer Japan: Tokyo, 2015; ISBN 9784431551164.
A chapter in an edited book
Karsai, G.; Narayanan, A. Towards Verification of Model Transformations Via Goal-Directed Certification. In Model-Driven Development of Reliable Automotive Services: Second Automotive Software Workshop, ASWSD 2006, San Diego, CA, USA, March 15-17, 2006, Revised Selected Papers; Broy, M., Krüger, I.H., Meisinger, M., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008; pp. 67–83 ISBN 9783540709299.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environments.

Blog post
Taub, B. These Super Slow-Mo Videos Show A Viper Strike In All Its Glory (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office FAA Alaska: Weak Controls Resulted in Improper and Wasteful Purchases; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2002;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ponder, K. Easing Stress by Helping Others: How Corporate Volunteer Programs Impact the Stress of Employees Within an Organization. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University: Edwardsville, IL, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. For Revival, MTV Pivots To Its Past. New York Times 2017, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironments
ISSN (online)2076-3298

Other styles