How to format your references using the Environments citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environments. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Szalavitz, M. Genetics: No more addictive personality. Nature 2015, 522, S48-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Adlam, B.; Nowak, M.A. Universality of fixation probabilities in randomly structured populations. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6692.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lenton, T.M.; Schellnhuber, H.J.; Szathmáry, E. Climbing the co-evolution ladder. Nature 2004, 431, 913.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang, Q.; Stelzer, A.C.; Fisher, C.K.; Al-Hashimi, H.M. Visualizing spatially correlated dynamics that directs RNA conformational transitions. Nature 2007, 450, 1263–1267.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nguyen, T.H. Leaders and Innovators; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2016; ISBN 9781119449393.
An edited book
Nonclinical Statistics for Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology Industries; Zhang, L., Ed.; Statistics for Biology and Health; 1st ed. 2016.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319235578.
A chapter in an edited book
Loy, J.; Canning, S.; Haskell, N. 3D Printing Sociocultural Sustainability. In Handbook of Sustainability in Additive Manufacturing: Volume 1; Muthu, S.S., Savalani, M.M., Eds.; Environmental Footprints and Eco-design of Products and Processes; Springer: Singapore, 2016; pp. 51–72 ISBN 9789811005473.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environments.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Company Claims Their Flying Car Will Hit Markets In Two Years (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Intellectual Property: Patent Office Should Define Quality, Reassess Incentives, and Improve Clarity; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2016;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cayo, P. A Shifting Bottleneck Procedure with Multiple Objectives in a Complex Manufacturing Environment. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University: Edwardsville, IL, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Steinhauer, J.; Thrush, G.; Pear, R. How a Health Care Bill Failed: G.O.P. Divisions and a Fed-Up President. New York Times 2017, A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironments
ISSN (online)2076-3298

Other styles