How to format your references using the Environments citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environments. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Benner, S.A. Synthetic biology: Act natural. Nature 2003, 421, 118.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lacroix, B.; Citovsky, V. Characterization of VIP1 activity as a transcriptional regulator in vitro and in planta. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2440.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tao, C.; Cullen, W.G.; Williams, E.D. Visualizing the electron scattering force in nanostructures. Science 2010, 328, 736–740.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yan, Y.; Liao, Z.-M.; Zhou, Y.-B.; Wu, H.-C.; Bie, Y.-Q.; Chen, J.-J.; Meng, J.; Wu, X.-S.; Yu, D.-P. Synthesis and quantum transport properties of Bi₂Se₃ topological insulator nanostructures. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1264.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zaragoza Dörwald, F. Side Reactions in Organic Synthesis; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, FRG, 2004; ISBN 9783527604265.
An edited book
New World Situation: New Directions in Concurrent Engineering: Proceedings of the 17th ISPE International Conference on Concurrent Engineering; Pokojski, J., Fukuda, S., Salwiński, J., Eds.; Advanced Concurrent Engineering; Springer: London, 2010; ISBN 9780857290236.
A chapter in an edited book
Pérez, M.; Sanz, I.; Berlanga, R. XTaGe: A Flexible Generation System for Complex XML Collections. In Database and Expert Systems Applications: 20th International Conference, DEXA 2009, Linz, Austria, August 31 – September 4, 2009. Proceedings; Bhowmick, S.S., Küng, J., Wagner, R., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; pp. 53–67 ISBN 9783642035722.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environments.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Maimed Toucan Set To Receive 3D Printed Beak Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Airfield Pavements; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1997;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilson, M.L. The Power of Spoken Word: Oral History As Social Work Pedagogy. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. Olympic Spot Conceded Without Runoff. New York Times 2012, B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironments
ISSN (online)2076-3298

Other styles