How to format your references using the Environments citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environments. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dixit, V. Jürg Tschopp (1951-2011). Nature 2011, 472, 296.
A journal article with 2 authors
Engdahl, A.; Nelander, B. The vibrational spectrum of H2O3. Science 2002, 295, 482–483.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, X.; Chen, X.; Wang, L. Random allocation of pies promotes the evolution of fairness in the Ultimatum Game. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4534.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, J.; Chen, Q.; Long, L.-J.; Dong, J.-D.; Yang, J.; Zhang, S. Bacterial dynamics within the mucus, tissue and skeleton of the coral Porites lutea during different seasons. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 7320.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Good, P.I.; Hardin, J.W. Common Errors in Statistics (And How to Avoid Them); John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2012; ISBN 9781118360125.
An edited book
Verma, P.K. Voice over IP Networks: Quality of Service, Pricing and Security; Wang, L., Ed.; Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011; Vol. 71; ISBN 9783642143298.
A chapter in an edited book
Chaudhuri, S.; Kotwal, K. Band Selection Through Redundancy Elimination. In Hyperspectral Image Fusion; Kotwal, K., Ed.; Springer: New York, NY, 2013; pp. 57–71 ISBN 9781461474692.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environments.

Blog post
Andrews, R. Surprisingly Oxygen-Rich Layer Found In Earth’s Ancient Atmosphere 2.7 Billion Years Ago (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Relationship of Contractor and Grantee ADP Activities; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1971;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Underwood, V.L. The effect of guided reading instruction on reading achievement. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University: St. Charles, MO, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. Scouting Report. New York Times 2010, E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironments
ISSN (online)2076-3298

Other styles