How to format your references using the Environments citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environments. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Aebischer, P. Philanthropy: The price of charity. Nature 2012, 481, 260.
A journal article with 2 authors
Metrangolo, P.; Resnati, G. Chemistry. Halogen versus hydrogen. Science 2008, 321, 918–919.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, L.H.; Yang, H.; Bigras, G. Current breast cancer proliferative markers correlate variably based on decoupled duration of cell cycle phases. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5122.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lescano, A.G.; Salmon-Mulanovich, G.; Pedroni, E.; Blazes, D.L. Epidemiology. Outbreak investigation and response training. Science 2007, 318, 574–575.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cayoun, B.A. Mindfulness-integrated CBT for Well-being and Personal Growth; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2015; ISBN 9781118509111.
An edited book
Cooperation, Clusters, and Knowledge Transfer: Universities and Firms Towards Regional Competitiveness; Ferreira, J.J.M., Raposo, M., Rutten, R., Varga, A., Eds.; Advances in Spatial Science, The Regional Science Series; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; ISBN 9783642331930.
A chapter in an edited book
Houbraken, J.; Samson, R.A. Standardization of methods for detecting heat resistant fungi. In Advances in Food Mycology; Hocking, A.D., Pitt, J.I., Samson, R.A., Thrane, U., Eds.; Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2006; pp. 107–111 ISBN 9780387283852.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environments.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Scientists Create Artificial Neuron that Functions Like the Real Thing Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Federal Research: Peer Review Practices at Federal Science Agencies Vary; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1999;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dusenberry, W. Integrating depth psychology in adolescent court-mandated treatment facilities: Increasing treatment efficacy and client engagement. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute: Carpinteria, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. Nine Million Desserts, for Gabriel, Michael, Alessandra and More. New York Times 2017, A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironments
ISSN (online)2076-3298

Other styles