How to format your references using the Environments citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environments. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Szpiro, G. Economics: Value Judgements. Nature 2013, 500, 521–523.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rogulja, D.; Young, M.W. Control of Sleep by Cyclin A and Its Regulator. Science 2012, 335, 1617–1621.
A journal article with 3 authors
Medzhitov, R.; Schneider, D.S.; Soares, M.P. Disease Tolerance as a Defense Strategy. Science 2012, 335, 936–941.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fiebig, M.; Lottermoser, T.; Fröhlich, D.; Goltsev, A.V.; Pisarev, R.V. Observation of Coupled Magnetic and Electric Domains. Nature 2002, 419, 818–820.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Parker, D. International Valuation Standards; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2016; ISBN 9781118329795.
An edited book
Translational Research in Audiology, Neurotology, and the Hearing Sciences; Le Prell, C.G., Lobarinas, E., Popper, A.N., Fay, R.R., Eds.; Springer Handbook of Auditory Research; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; Vol. 58; ISBN 9783319408460.
A chapter in an edited book
Hörmann, G.; Herbst, M.; Eschenbach, C. Water Relations at Different Scales. In Ecosystem Organization of a Complex Landscape: Long-Term Research in the Bornhöved Lake District, Germany; Fränzle, O., Kappen, L., Blume, H.-P., Dierssen, K., Eds.; Ecological Studies; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008; pp. 101–117 ISBN 9783540758105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environments.

Blog post
Davis, J. Melting Sea Ice Causing Hungry Polar Bears To Switch From Seals To Goose Nesting Sites Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Vehicle Safety: Enhanced Project Management of New Information Technology Could Help Improve NHTSA’s Oversight of Safety Defects; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2016;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Leonard Puppa, E.L. Duration of Case Management: Correlation with Medicaid Pediatric Patient Outcomes. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. Sketching an Artistic Love Triangle. New York Times 2017, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironments
ISSN (online)2076-3298

Other styles