How to format your references using the Environments citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environments. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, C. The silent treatment. Nature 2003, 422, 342.
A journal article with 2 authors
Owen, J.; Hector, A. Materials science. Phase-transforming electrodes. Science 2014, 344, 1451–1452.
A journal article with 3 authors
Finlay, J.C.; Small, G.E.; Sterner, R.W. Human influences on nitrogen removal in lakes. Science 2013, 342, 247–250.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lin, J.-H.; Patil, R.A.; Devan, R.S.; Liu, Z.-A.; Wang, Y.-P.; Ho, C.-H.; Liou, Y.; Ma, Y.-R. Photoluminescence mechanisms of metallic Zn nanospheres, semiconducting ZnO nanoballoons, and metal-semiconductor Zn/ZnO nanospheres. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6967.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kenny, T. The Nuts and Bolts of Implantable Device Therapy Pacemakers; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2014; ISBN 9781118670637.
An edited book
Solar Flare Magnetic Fields and Plasmas; Fan, Y., Fisher, G., Eds.; Springer US: New York, NY, 2012; ISBN 9781461437604.
A chapter in an edited book
Chapin, J.K. Hardware Implementation. In Brain-Computer Interfaces: An International Assessment of Research and Development Trends; Chapin, J.K., Gerhardt, G.A., McFarland, D.J., Principe, J.C., Soussou, W.V., Taylor, D.M., Tresco, P.A., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2008; pp. 65–79 ISBN 9781402087042.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environments.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Nest Architecture Determines Ants’ Capacity To Forage Collectively Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Airline Competition: Pending Legislation Helps to Address Serious Competitive Problems; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1991;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lieberman, V. One yard shy of empowerment: Cinematic portrayals of female athletes. Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University: Boca Raton, FL, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G.G. From Insider, a Comics Venture to Help Newcomers. New York Times 2010, B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironments
ISSN (online)2076-3298

Other styles