How to format your references using the Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Royal CDM (2011) Genome-sequencing anniversary. My genome, my identity, my health. Science 331:690–691
A journal article with 2 authors
Hannon GJ, Rossi JJ (2004) Unlocking the potential of the human genome with RNA interference. Nature 431:371–378
A journal article with 3 authors
Teuten EL, Xu L, Reddy CM (2005) Two abundant bioaccumulated halogenated compounds are natural products. Science 307:917–920
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Shors TJ, Miesegaes G, Beylin A, et al (2001) Neurogenesis in the adult is involved in the formation of trace memories. Nature 410:372–376

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bacon CR (2012) Practical Risk-Adjusted Performance Measurement. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Schüermann M, Franz U (eds) (2006) Quantum Independent Increment Processes II: Structure of Quantum Levy Processes, Classical Probability, and Physics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Jambor A, Babu S (2016) Who Feeds the World?: Global Agricultural Trade Patterns. In: Babu S (ed) Competitiveness of Global Agriculture: Policy Lessons for Food Security. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 47–74

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) 3D Printed Robot Takes Hoverbike Out For A Spin. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) Resources, Community, and Economic Development Information Systems Issue Area--Active Assignments. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Miller MW (2010) The Mediterranean Ethiopian: Intellectual discourse and the fixity of myth in classical antiquity. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG (2015) Comics, Classic and Newer, Make a Comeback. New York Times B2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Royal 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Hannon and Rossi 2004; Royal 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hannon and Rossi 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Shors et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
AbbreviationJ. Pharm. Investig.
ISSN (print)2093-5552
ISSN (online)2093-6214
ScopePharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics (miscellaneous)
Pharmaceutical Science

Other styles