How to format your references using the Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Turner M (2013) Animal behaviour: brain food. Nature 498:446
A journal article with 2 authors
Ekström G, Stark CP (2013) Simple scaling of catastrophic landslide dynamics. Science 339:1416–1419
A journal article with 3 authors
Carazo-Salas RE, Antony C, Nurse P (2005) The kinesin Klp2 mediates polarization of interphase microtubules in fission yeast. Science 309:297–300
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Liang W, Shores MP, Bockrath M, et al (2002) Kondo resonance in a single-molecule transistor. Nature 417:725–729

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anaya-Lara O, Campos-Gaona D, Moreno-Goytia E, Adam G (2014) Offshore Wind Energy Generation. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Scheschkewitz D (ed) (2014) Functional Molecular Silicon Compounds I: Regular Oxidation States. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Esch H (2012) Foraging Honey Bees: How Foragers Determine and Transmit Information About Feeding Site Locations. In: Galizia CG, Eisenhardt D, Giurfa M (eds) Honeybee Neurobiology and Behavior: A Tribute to Randolf Menzel. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 53–64

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Four Things You Should Be Doing To Protect Yourself From Cyberattack. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) Information Management: Leadership Needed in Managing Federal Telecommunications. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brothers J (2009) Nonparametric regression using wavelet transformations and noise reduction in audio signals. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
James M (2016) Five or Six Things I Didn’t Know About Brad Pitt. New York Times M2128

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Turner 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Ekström and Stark 2013; Turner 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ekström and Stark 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Liang et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
AbbreviationJ. Pharm. Investig.
ISSN (print)2093-5552
ISSN (online)2093-6214
ScopePharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics (miscellaneous)
Pharmaceutical Science

Other styles