How to format your references using the Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Berendsen HJ (2001) Bioinformatics. Reality simulation--observe while it happens. Science 294:2304–2305
A journal article with 2 authors
Rey G, Reddy AB (2013) Physiology. Rhythmic respiration. Science 342:570–571
A journal article with 3 authors
Tarlinton RE, Meers J, Young PR (2006) Retroviral invasion of the koala genome. Nature 442:79–81
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ohta K, Onoda S, Hirose K, et al (2008) The electrical conductivity of post-perovskite in Earth’s D’’ layer. Science 320:89–91

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liphard KG (2014) Labormanagement. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Tsinganos K, Ray T, Stute M (eds) (2009) Protostellar Jets in Context. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Fairchild PJ, Ichiryu N (2013) Mitigating the Risk of Immunogenicity in the Pursuit of Induced Pluripotency. In: Fairchild PJ (ed) The Immunological Barriers to Regenerative Medicine. Springer, New York, NY, pp 77–94

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation.

Blog post
Andrews R (2017) This Is What Caused The Most Powerful Eruption In Human History. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977) Impact of Illegal Aliens on Public Assistance Programs: Too Little Is Known. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fanelli RM (2017) Effects of Urbanization and Infiltration-Based Watershed Restoration on the Hydro-Ecology of Headwater Streams. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K (2011) Macarons of Her Own. New York Times NJ10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Berendsen 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Berendsen 2001; Rey and Reddy 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rey and Reddy 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Ohta et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
AbbreviationJ. Pharm. Investig.
ISSN (print)2093-5552
ISSN (online)2093-6214
ScopePharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics (miscellaneous)
Pharmaceutical Science

Other styles