How to format your references using the Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jungmann KP (2015) Particle physics: Matter and antimatter scrutinized. Nature 524:168–169
A journal article with 2 authors
Plug LJ, Werner BT (2002) Nonlinear dynamics of ice-wedge networks and resulting sensitivity to severe cooling events. Nature 417:929–933
A journal article with 3 authors
Debs JE, Robins NP, Close JD (2013) Physics. Measuring mass in seconds. Science 339:532–533
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kalchenko V, Israeli D, Kuznetsov Y, Harmelin A (2014) Transcranial optical vascular imaging (TOVI) of cortical hemodynamics in mouse brain. Sci Rep 4:5839

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Joseph C (2013) Advanced Credit Risk Analysis and Management. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Gros B, Kinshuk, Maina M (eds) (2016) The Future of Ubiquitous Learning: Learning Designs for Emerging Pedagogies, 1st ed. 2016. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Imhoff AB, Beitzel K, Stamer K, Klein E (2016) Elbow: Surgical procedure/aftercare. In: Imhoff AB, Beitzel K, Stamer K, et al. (eds) Rehabilitation in Orthopedic Surgery. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 61–64

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) Chimpanzees Know Infanticide Breaks Social Norms. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988) Federal Aviation Administration’s Advanced Automation System Investment. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Goldner VR (2010) Arizona nurses’ attitudes toward legislated minimum staffing ratios: Impact on the workplace. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barnard A, Kirkpatrick DD (2017) 5 Arab Nations Put U.S. in Jam As They Move to Isolate Qatar. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jungmann 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Plug and Werner 2002; Jungmann 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Plug and Werner 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Kalchenko et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
AbbreviationJ. Pharm. Investig.
ISSN (print)2093-5552
ISSN (online)2093-6214
ScopePharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics (miscellaneous)
Pharmaceutical Science

Other styles