How to format your references using the Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McSwain MV (2014) Astrophysics: Black hole found orbiting a fast rotator. Nature 505:296–297
A journal article with 2 authors
Gaffney KJ, Chapman HN (2007) Imaging atomic structure and dynamics with ultrafast x-ray scattering. Science 316:1444–1448
A journal article with 3 authors
Oliveira G de A, Lieberman J, Barillas-Mury C (2012) Epithelial nitration by a peroxidase/NOX5 system mediates mosquito antiplasmodial immunity. Science 335:856–859
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Mameli M, Balland B, Luján R, Lüscher C (2007) Rapid synthesis and synaptic insertion of GluR2 for mGluR-LTD in the ventral tegmental area. Science 317:530–533

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hogg RM, Fulk RD (2011) A Grammar of Old English. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Sprake J (ed) (2012) Learning-Through-Touring: Mobilising Learners and Touring Technologies to Creatively Explore the Built Environment. SensePublishers, Rotterdam
A chapter in an edited book
Scott-Conner CEH, Chassin JL (2014) Surgical Stapling: Principles and Precautions. In: Scott-Conner CEH (ed) Chassin’s Operative Strategy in General Surgery: An Expositive Atlas. Springer, New York, NY, pp 39–44

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) “Earth-Like” Exoplanet Discovered In The Nearest Star System To Our Own. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1982) Education Paperwork Requirements Are Burdensome: Better Federal Controls Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bubert EA (2009) Highly extensible skin for a variable wing-span morphing aircraft utilizing pneumatic artificial muscle actuation. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2017) Asked Yet Again for Multiple Innings, Mets’ Bullpen Lets a Game Slip Away. New York Times D5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McSwain 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Gaffney and Chapman 2007; McSwain 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gaffney and Chapman 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Mameli et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
AbbreviationJ. Pharm. Investig.
ISSN (print)2093-5552
ISSN (online)2093-6214
ScopePharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics (miscellaneous)
Pharmaceutical Science

Other styles