How to format your references using the Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boylan-Kolchin M. 2014. Cosmology: A virtual Universe. Nature. 509:170–171.
A journal article with 2 authors
Titantah JT, Karttunen M. 2013. Water dynamics: relation between hydrogen bond bifurcations, molecular jumps, local density & hydrophobicity. Sci. Rep. 3:2991.
A journal article with 3 authors
Matsumoto K, Suzuki W, Tanaka K. 2003. Neuronal correlates of goal-based motor selection in the prefrontal cortex. Science. 301:229–232.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Martinez-Garcia JC, Rzoska SJ, Drzozd-Rzoska A, Martinez-Garcia J, Mauro JC. 2014. Divergent dynamics and the Kauzmann temperature in glass forming systems. Sci. Rep. 4:5160.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Diab WW, Frazier HM. 2011. Ethernet in the First Mile. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Popescu E, Li Q, Klamma R, Leung H, Specht M. 2012. Advances in Web-Based Learning - ICWL 2012: 11th International Conference, Sinaia, Romania, September 2-4, 2012. Proceedings. 7558, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Siebert C, Rödiger T, Geyer S, Laronne JB, Hillel N, Sauter M, Mallast U. 2016. Multidisciplinary Investigations of the Transboundary Dead Sea Basin and Its Water Resources. In Borchardt, D, Bogardi, JJ and Ibisch, RB, eds, Integrated Water Resources Management: Concept, Research and Implementation. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 107–127.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry.

Blog post
Davis J. 2017. Is Eating Burnt Toast Or Crispy Potatoes A Potential Cancer Risk? IFLScience. [cited 30 October 2018]. Available from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. Higher Education: Grants Effective at Increasing Minorities’ Chances of Graduating. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ghadimian V. 2017. Renewable Energy Marketplace.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. 2010. Whimsical Boyfriends. New York Times.:E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Toxicology and Chemistry
AbbreviationEnviron. Toxicol. Chem.
ISSN (online)1552-8618
ScopeEnvironmental Chemistry
Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Other styles