How to format your references using the Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain C. 2000. Critics blast US missile defence system as flawed. Nature. 404:799.
A journal article with 2 authors
Armitage AE, Drakesmith H. 2014. Genetics. The battle for iron. Science. 346:1299–1300.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mizukami T, Wallis SR, Yamamoto J. 2004. Natural examples of olivine lattice preferred orientation patterns with a flow-normal a-axis maximum. Nature. 427:432–436.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mäkinen N, Mehine M, Tolvanen J, Kaasinen E, Li Y, Lehtonen HJ, Gentile M, Yan J, Enge M, Taipale M, Aavikko M, Katainen R, Virolainen E, Böhling T, Koski TA, Launonen V, Sjöberg J, Taipale J, Vahteristo P, Aaltonen LA. 2011. MED12, the mediator complex subunit 12 gene, is mutated at high frequency in uterine leiomyomas. Science. 334:252–255.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maillard P. 2013. Competitive Quality Strategies. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA.
An edited book
Lin S, Huang X. 2011. Advanced Research on Computer Education, Simulation and Modeling: International Conference, CESM 2011, Wuhan, China, June 18-19, 2011. Proceedings, Part I. 175, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Schlötterer C, Dieringer D. 2005. A Novel Test Statistic for the Identification of Local Selective Sweeps Based on Microsatellite Gene Diversity. In Nurminsky, D, ed., Selective Sweep. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 55–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2016. America Is “Dropping Cyberbombs’ – But How Do They Work? IFLScience. [cited 30 October 2018]. Available from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. [Comments on FAA Employee’s Claim for Backpay]. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen TH. 2015. Adolescent substance use family-based treatment: A grant proposal project.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear MD, Martin J. 2017. Trump Welcomes West Virginia Governor to G.O.P. New York Times.:A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Toxicology and Chemistry
AbbreviationEnviron. Toxicol. Chem.
ISSN (online)1552-8618
ScopeEnvironmental Chemistry
Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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