How to format your references using the Environmental Processes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Processes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Emlen DJ (2001) Costs and the diversification of exaggerated animal structures. Science 291:1534–1536
A journal article with 2 authors
Gao YQ, Marcus RA (2001) Strange and unconventional isotope effects in ozone formation. Science 293:259–263
A journal article with 3 authors
Lamas-Linares A, Howell JC, Bouwmeester D (2001) Stimulated emission of polarization-entangled photons. Nature 412:887–890
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Weavers H, Prieto-Sánchez S, Grawe F, et al (2009) The insect nephrocyte is a podocyte-like cell with a filtration slit diaphragm. Nature 457:322–326

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Duffy DJ (2006) Introduction to C++ for Financial Engineers. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Nastasi BK, Borja AP (eds) (2016) International Handbook of Psychological Well-Being in Children and Adolescents: Bridging the Gaps Between Theory, Research, and Practice, 1st ed. 2016. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Rao C, Darzi A, Athanasiou T (2011) An Introduction to Decision Analysis. In: Darzi A, Athanasiou T (eds) Evidence Synthesis in Healthcare: A Practical Handbook for Clinicians. Springer, London, pp 127–140

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Processes.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2017) Boeing Has Unveiled Its Stylish New Spacesuit For Its Upcoming Space Missions. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977) Survey at the Regional Finance and Data Processing Center in Paris, France. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia-Benitez C (2010) Support program to facilitate achievement for emancipated foster youth to succeed in college. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Loomis G (2012) Baroque Opera at the Ambronay Festival. New York Times 0

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Emlen 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Emlen 2001; Gao and Marcus 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gao and Marcus 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Weavers et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Processes
AbbreviationEnviron. Process.
ISSN (print)2198-7491
ISSN (online)2198-7505
ScopeEnvironmental Engineering
Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Water Science and Technology

Other styles