How to format your references using the Environmental Processes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Processes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schröder R (2003) The genes orthodenticle and hunchback substitute for bicoid in the beetle Tribolium. Nature 422:621–625
A journal article with 2 authors
Baker PJ, Wilson JS (2003) Plant ecology: Coexistence of tropical tree species. Nature 422:581–2; discussion 852
A journal article with 3 authors
Matzke M, Matzke AJ, Kooter JM (2001) RNA: guiding gene silencing. Science 293:1080–1083
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Forgues J-C, Sane FB, Blanchard S, et al (2013) Noise intensity-intensity correlations and the fourth cumulant of photo-assisted shot noise. Sci Rep 3:2869

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Taylor R (2006) Handbook of Retinal Screening in Diabetes. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Melin P, Castillo O, Ramírez EG, et al (eds) (2007) Analysis and Design of Intelligent Systems using Soft Computing Techniques. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Alloyeau D (2012) Transmission Electron Microscopy: A Multifunctional Tool for the Atomic-scale Characterization of Nanoalloys. In: Alloyeau D, Mottet C, Ricolleau C (eds) Nanoalloys: Synthesis, Structure and Properties. Springer, London, pp 113–157

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Processes.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Fossil Peruvian Monkey May Have Originated in Africa. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977) The National Direct Student Loan Program Requires More Attention by the Office of Education and Participating Institutions. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Morrison C (2009) Who am I? Identity formation of children in foster care: A curriculum development. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M (2010) A New Bag, A New Space. New York Times E9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schröder 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Baker and Wilson 2003; Schröder 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Baker and Wilson 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Forgues et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Processes
AbbreviationEnviron. Process.
ISSN (print)2198-7491
ISSN (online)2198-7505
ScopeEnvironmental Engineering
Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Water Science and Technology

Other styles