How to format your references using the Environmental Fluid Mechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Fluid Mechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lovett RA (2000) PLANETARY SCIENCE: “Spiders” Channel Mars Polar Ice Cap. Science 289:1853a–4a
A journal article with 2 authors
Gouaux E, Mackinnon R (2005) Principles of selective ion transport in channels and pumps. Science 310:1461–1465
A journal article with 3 authors
Quax R, Kandhai D, Sloot PMA (2013) Information dissipation as an early-warning signal for the Lehman Brothers collapse in financial time series. Sci Rep 3:1898
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Falconer E, Chavez EA, Henderson A, et al (2010) Identification of sister chromatids by DNA template strand sequences. Nature 463:93–97

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ralph D, Graham P (2004) MMS: Technologies, Usage and Business Models. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Horváth L (2012) Inference for Functional Data with Applications. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Dicuangco-Valdez L, Moree P, Solé P (2014) On the Existence of Hermitian Self-Dual Extended Abelian Group Codes. In: Heim B, Al-Baali M, Ibukiyama T, Rupp F (eds) Automorphic Forms: Research in Number Theory from Oman. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 67–84

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Fluid Mechanics.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) In the Outback, Insects Build Little Houses to Keep From Drying Out. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009) Proprietary Schools: Stronger Department of Education Oversight Needed to Help Ensure Only Eligible Students Receive Federal Student Aid. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bubert EA (2009) Highly extensible skin for a variable wing-span morphing aircraft utilizing pneumatic artificial muscle actuation. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear MD, Haberman M (2017) In Interview, Bannon Contradicts Trump on North Korea, and Lashes Out at Rivals. New York Times A18

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Fluid Mechanics
AbbreviationEnviron. Fluid Mech. (Dordr.)
ISSN (print)1567-7419
ISSN (online)1573-1510
ScopeEnvironmental Chemistry
Water Science and Technology

Other styles