How to format your references using the Environmental Fluid Mechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Fluid Mechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Granovetter M (2003) Social science. Ignorance, knowledge, and outcomes in a small world. Science 301:773–774
A journal article with 2 authors
Gilbert DT, Wilson TD (2007) Prospection: experiencing the future. Science 317:1351–1354
A journal article with 3 authors
Schall P, Weitz DA, Spaepen F (2007) Structural rearrangements that govern flow in colloidal glasses. Science 318:1895–1899
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Larsson EM, Langhammer C, Zorić I, Kasemo B (2009) Nanoplasmonic probes of catalytic reactions. Science 326:1091–1094

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Traitler H (2015) Food Industry Innovation School, The. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Meyer G, Beiker S (2015) Road Vehicle Automation 2. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Westerhof N, Stergiopulos N, Noble MIM (2010) Turbulence. In: Stergiopulos N, Noble MIM (eds) Snapshots of Hemodynamics: An Aid for Clinical Research and Graduate Education. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 21–23

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Fluid Mechanics.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Climate Models Too Complicated? Here’s One That Everyone Can Use. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) Measuring Performance: Challenges in Evaluating Research and Development. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Holvick-Norton T (2015) Becoming Whole: The Process of Individuation for Women and Their Bodies. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Milhollin G, Motz K (2002) Why Iraq Will Defeat Arms Inspectors. New York Times A17

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Fluid Mechanics
AbbreviationEnviron. Fluid Mech. (Dordr.)
ISSN (print)1567-7419
ISSN (online)1573-1510
ScopeEnvironmental Chemistry
Water Science and Technology

Other styles