How to format your references using the Combinatorial Chemistry - an Online journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Combinatorial Chemistry - an Online journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Collins T. Essays on science and society. Toward sustainable chemistry. Science 2001;291:48–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen MS, White MC. A predictably selective aliphatic C-H oxidation reaction for complex molecule synthesis. Science 2007;318:783–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barrett RDH, Rogers SM, Schluter D. Natural selection on a major armor gene in threespine stickleback. Science 2008;322:255–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Toh RJ, Peng WK, Han J, Pumera M. Direct in vivo electrochemical detection of haemoglobin in red blood cells. Sci Rep 2014;4:6209.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wilson GP. Managing to the New Regulatory Reality. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Elfadel I (abe) M, Fettweis G, editors. 3D Stacked Chips: From Emerging Processes to Heterogeneous Systems. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Papadimitriou I. Lectures on Holographic Renormalization. In: Kallosh R, Orazi E, editors. Theoretical Frontiers in Black Holes and Cosmology: Theoretical Perspective in High Energy Physics, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 131–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Combinatorial Chemistry - an Online journal.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Swirling Cool Jet Reveals A Growing Black Hole. IFLScience 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Program Status: Naval Surface Fire Support. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Berkland M. Strain analysis of a detachment shear zone. Doctoral dissertation. University of Louisiana, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. Clinton Seeks to Expand Presidential Privacy. New York Times 1992:B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCombinatorial Chemistry - an Online journal
ISSN (print)1464-3383

Other styles