How to format your references using the Environmental Communication: A Journal of Nature and Culture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Communication: A Journal of Nature and Culture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Insel, T. R. (2010). Rethinking schizophrenia. Nature, 468(7321), 187–193.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ward, D. J., & MacKay, D. J. C. (2002). Artificial intelligence: fast hands-free writing by gaze direction. Nature, 418(6900), 838.
A journal article with 3 authors
Baran, P. S., Maimone, T. J., & Richter, J. M. (2007). Total synthesis of marine natural products without using protecting groups. Nature, 446(7134), 404–408.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lauterbach, M. A., Guillon, M., Soltani, A., & Emiliani, V. (2013). STED microscope with spiral phase contrast. Scientific Reports, 3, 2050.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lafontaine, E., & Comet, M. (2016). Nanothermites. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
U, S.-P. (2006). Design of Very High-Frequency Multirate Switched-Capacitor Circuits: Extending the Boundaries of CMOS Analog Front-End Filtering (R. P. Martins & J. E. da Franca, Eds.; Vol. 867). Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Huiqin, Z., Pingjian, G., & Jun, M. (2012). Research on the Mode of Computer-Aided Translation Teaching Process. In Y. Wu (Ed.), Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering: Theory and Practice: Volume 1 (pp. 25–32). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Communication: A Journal of Nature and Culture.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, October 28). Male Contraceptive Jab Shown To Be 96 Percent Effective. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle: Action Needed to Improve Visibility into Cost, Schedule, and Capacity to Resolve Technical Challenges (GAO-16-620). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson, J. G. (2012). An Exploration of the Psychosocial Aspects of Weight Among College Students in the College Environment [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. (2017, March 30). A Super Mission: Crashing the Closet. New York Times, AR17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Insel, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Insel, 2010; Ward & MacKay, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ward & MacKay, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Baran et al., 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Lauterbach et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Communication: A Journal of Nature and Culture
ISSN (print)1752-4032
ISSN (online)1752-4040
ScopeEnvironmental Science (miscellaneous)
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

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