How to format your references using the Finance Research Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Finance Research Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Walters, H.R.J., 2010. Physics. Antimatter atomic physics. Science 330, 762–763.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kidner, C.A., Martienssen, R.A., 2004. Spatially restricted microRNA directs leaf polarity through ARGONAUTE1. Nature 428, 81–84.
A journal article with 3 authors
Paul, J.W., West, J.P., Gitler, A.D., 2014. Cell Biology. Clogging information flow in ALS. Science 345, 1118–1119.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Michel, J.-B., Shen, Y.K., Aiden, A.P., Veres, A., Gray, M.K., Google Books Team, Pickett, J.P., Hoiberg, D., Clancy, D., Norvig, P., Orwant, J., Pinker, S., Nowak, M.A., Aiden, E.L., 2011. Quantitative analysis of culture using millions of digitized books. Science 331, 176–182.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Choudhry, M., Landuyt, G., 2010. The Future of Finance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Miao, D., Pedrycz, W., Ślȩzak, D., Peters, G., Hu, Q., Wang, R. (Eds.), 2014. Rough Sets and Knowledge Technology: 9th International Conference, RSKT 2014, Shanghai, China, October 24-26, 2014, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Novak, J.H., Kasera, S.K., Guan, Y., 2016. Crytpo-Based Methods and Fingerprints, in: Wang, C., Gerdes, R.M., Guan, Y., Kasera, S.K. (Eds.), Digital Fingerprinting. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 39–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Finance Research Letters.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Never Mind The Selfish Gene – Ribosomes Are The Missing Link [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2008. Disconnected Youth: Federal Action Could Address Some of the Challenges Faced by Local Programs That Reconnect Youth to Education and Employment (No. GAO-08-313). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Joshi, T., 2010. Understanding gold nanoisland formation using transport measurement (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland, J., 2016. Ground Zero, Deluged. New York Times MB4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Walters, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Kidner and Martienssen, 2004; Walters, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kidner and Martienssen, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Michel et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleFinance Research Letters
AbbreviationFin. Res. Lett.
ISSN (print)1544-6123

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