How to format your references using the Finance Research Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Finance Research Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eldridge, J.J., 2014. Astrophysics: Windy stars that go with a bang. Nature 509, 431–432.
A journal article with 2 authors
Melott, A.L., Thomas, B.C., 2012. Causes of an ad 774-775 14C increase. Nature 491, E1-2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gordon, A.L., Susanto, R.D., Vranes, K., 2003. Cool Indonesian throughflow as a consequence of restricted surface layer flow. Nature 425, 824–828.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lewis, S., Sherratt, T.N., Hamer, K.C., Wanless, S., 2001. Evidence of intra-specific competition for food in a pelagic seabird. Nature 412, 816–819.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Janke, S.J., Tinsley, F.C., 2005. Introduction to Linear Models and Statistical Inference. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Altmann, J., Neumann, D., Fahringer, T. (Eds.), 2008. Grid Economics and Business Models: 5th International Workshop, GECON 2008, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, August 26, 2008. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Brown, J.J., Glenn, E.P., Smith, S.E., 2014. Feasibility of Halophyte Domestication for High-Salinity Agriculture, in: Khan, M.A., Böer, B., Öztürk, M., Abdessalaam, T.Z.A., Clüsener-Godt, M., Gul, B. (Eds.), Sabkha Ecosystems: Volume IV: Cash Crop Halophyte and Biodiversity Conservation, Tasks for Vegetation Science. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 73–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Finance Research Letters.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Boy Gets Ears Made From His Ribs [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1994. Electronic Signature Prototype System (No. AIMD-94-70R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tafoya, A., 2010. Impact of HIV/AIDS stigma on seropositive Latinos along the United States-Mexico border (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fausset, R., Blinder, A., Eligon, J., 2016. Blacks Beg to Differ With Trump’s Depiction. New York Times A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eldridge, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Eldridge, 2014; Melott and Thomas, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Melott and Thomas, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Lewis et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleFinance Research Letters
AbbreviationFin. Res. Lett.
ISSN (print)1544-6123

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