How to format your references using the Finance Research Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Finance Research Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brumfiel, G., 2003. High-voltage shock sparks fusion from X-ray crush. Nature 422, 549.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kim, N., Grey, C.P., 2002. Probing oxygen motion in disordered anionic conductors with 17O and 51V MAS NMR spectroscopy. Science 297, 1317–1320.
A journal article with 3 authors
Qiu, X.H., Nazin, G.V., Ho, W., 2003. Vibrationally resolved fluorescence excited with submolecular precision. Science 299, 542–546.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Badolato, A., Hennessy, K., Atatüre, M., Dreiser, J., Hu, E., Petroff, P.M., Imamoglu, A., 2005. Deterministic coupling of single quantum dots to single nanocavity modes. Science 308, 1158–1161.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ramm, A.G., Hoang, N.S., 2011. Dynamical Systems Method and Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Levizzani, V., Bauer, P., Turk, F.J. (Eds.), 2007. Measuring Precipitation From Space: EURAINSAT and the Future, Advances In Global Change Research. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Tresadern, P., Cootes, T., Taylor, C., Petrović, V., 2011. Face Alignment Models, in: Li, S.Z., Jain, A.K. (Eds.), Handbook of Face Recognition. Springer, London, pp. 109–135.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Finance Research Letters.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2014. Five Phenomenal Science Stunts Done With Dry Ice [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2012. Information Technology: SBA Needs to Strengthen Oversight of Its Loan Management and Accounting System Modernization (No. GAO-12-295). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rich, D.W., 2009. Examining the relationship of values-based management in performance evaluations (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz, J., 2016. At Exxon, Nominee Steered Company’s ‘Evolution’ on Climate. New York Times A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brumfiel, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Brumfiel, 2003; Kim and Grey, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kim and Grey, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Badolato et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFinance Research Letters
AbbreviationFin. Res. Lett.
ISSN (print)1544-6123

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