How to format your references using the Environment International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environment International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schoener, T.W., 2011. The newest synthesis: understanding the interplay of evolutionary and ecological dynamics. Science 331, 426–429.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pitman, N.C.A., Jørgensen, P.M., 2002. Estimating the size of the world’s threatened flora. Science 298, 989.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yoshikuni, Y., Ferrin, T.E., Keasling, J.D., 2006. Designed divergent evolution of enzyme function. Nature 440, 1078–1082.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Segura, T.L., Toon, O.B., Colaprete, A., Zahnle, K., 2002. Environmental effects of large impacts on Mars. Science 298, 1977–1980.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pétrowski, A., Ben-Hamida, S., 2017. Evolutionary Algorithms. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Baker, M., Payne, S. (Eds.), 2016. Nonarchimedean and Tropical Geometry, Simons Symposia. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Giangrande, P.L.F., 2006. nvCJD and Blood Products in the UK, in: Scharrer, I., Schramm, W. (Eds.), 35th Hemophilia Symposium: Hamburg 2004. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 29–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environment International.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. You Can Now Charge Your Smartphone With Your Pee [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2004. Business Systems Modernization: Internal Revenue Service Needs to Further Strengthen Program Management (No. GAO-04-438T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Burgner, J., 2010. Bullying prevention: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx, L., 2010. Michelle McGann and Jonathan Satter. New York Times ST10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schoener, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Pitman and Jørgensen, 2002; Schoener, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pitman and Jørgensen, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Segura et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironment International
AbbreviationEnviron. Int.
ISSN (print)0160-4120
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science

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