How to format your references using the Environment International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environment International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier, Q., 2001. Bid to end EU’s transgenic impasse. Nature 413, 661.
A journal article with 2 authors
Singh, H., Demarco, I.A., 2010. Immunology. Double TIP-ping. Science 329, 914–915.
A journal article with 3 authors
Krasnoshchekov, D.N., Kaazik, P.B., Ovtchinnikov, V.M., 2005. Seismological evidence for mosaic structure of the surface of the Earth’s inner core. Nature 435, 483–487.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Eichmann, U., Nubbemeyer, T., Rottke, H., Sandner, W., 2009. Acceleration of neutral atoms in strong short-pulse laser fields. Nature 461, 1261–1264.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ma, A.D., Roberts, H.R., Escobar, M.A., 2012. Hemophilia and Hemostasis. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford.
An edited book
Datta, A., Shulman, S., Zheng, B., Lin, S.-D., Sun, A., Lim, E.-P. (Eds.), 2011. Social Informatics: Third International Conference, SocInfo 2011, Singapore, October 6-8, 2011. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Feinerman, O., Korman, A., 2012. Memory Lower Bounds for Randomized Collaborative Search and Implications for Biology, in: Aguilera, M.K. (Ed.), Distributed Computing: 26th International Symposium, DISC 2012, Salvador, Brazil, October 16-18, 2012. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 61–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environment International.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. What Blind Beetles Can Teach Us About Evolution [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1977. The Impact of Federal Commodity Donations on the School Lunch Program (No. CED-77-32). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Karmacharya, B., 2015. Population Dynamics of Northern Cardinal and Carolina Wren in an Urban Forest Fragment: Safe Refuge or Ecological Trap? (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2010. A Tough Hill to Climb, but Not Impossible. New York Times B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schiermeier, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Schiermeier, 2001; Singh and Demarco, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Singh and Demarco, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Eichmann et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironment International
AbbreviationEnviron. Int.
ISSN (print)0160-4120
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science

Other styles