How to format your references using the Environment International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environment International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nicholls, H., 2015. Conservation biology: Wild at heart. Nature 528, 474–475.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mochida, S., Hunt, T., 2007. Calcineurin is required to release Xenopus egg extracts from meiotic M phase. Nature 449, 336–340.
A journal article with 3 authors
Van Dyck, D., Jinschek, J.R., Chen, F.-R., 2012. “Big Bang” tomography as a new route to atomic-resolution electron tomography. Nature 486, 243–246.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lian, J., Yu, L., Liang, J.-Q., Chen, G., Jia, S., 2013. Orbit-induced spin squeezing in a spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate. Sci. Rep. 3, 3166.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bucci, D., 2017. Analog Electronics for Measuring Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Allahbadia, G.N., Nitzschke, M. (Eds.), 2015. Minimal Stimulation and Natural Cycle In Vitro Fertilization, 1st ed. 2015. ed. Springer India, New Delhi.
A chapter in an edited book
Benesty, J., Chen, J., Huang, Y., Cohen, I., 2009. Pearson Correlation Coefficient, in: Huang, Y., Chen, J., Benesty, J. (Eds.), Noise Reduction in Speech Processing, Springer Topics in Signal Processing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 1–4.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environment International.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Poor Semen Quality May Be A Warning Sign Of Other Health Issues [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1977. Capitalization and Use of the Automatic Data Processing Fund That Is Administered by the General Services Administration (No. B-115369). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kino, M.Y., 2015. My Concierge MD, Inc. a business plan (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M., Walsh, M.W., 2010. In Town That Stopped Checks, A Warning on Public Pensions. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nicholls, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Mochida and Hunt, 2007; Nicholls, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mochida and Hunt, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Lian et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironment International
AbbreviationEnviron. Int.
ISSN (print)0160-4120
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science

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