How to format your references using the GMS Medizin - Bibliothek - Information citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for GMS Medizin - Bibliothek - Information. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lichten M. Molecular biology. Putting the breaks on meiosis. Science. 2015 Nov 20;350(6263):913.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gaut BS, Ross-Ibarra J. Selection on major components of angiosperm genomes. Science. 2008 Apr 25;320(5875):484–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Robertson WH, Diken EG, Johnson MA. Chemistry. Snapshots of water at work. Science. 2003 Jul 18;301(5631):320–1.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhao Z, Chen Y-A, Zhang A-N, Yang T, Briegel HJ, Pan J-W. Experimental demonstration of five-photon entanglement and open-destination teleportation. Nature. 2004 Jul 1;430(6995):54–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jiang J, Zhang C. Fundamentals and Applications of Lithium-ion Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Reiners T, Wood LC, editors. Gamification in Education and Business. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. LIV, 710 p. 189 illus., 106 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Ko EY, Schlinkert RT, Humphreys MR. Laparoscopic and Robotic Adrenalectomy. In: Joseph JV, Patel HRH, editors. Retroperitoneal Robotic and Laparoscopic Surgery: The Extraperitoneal Approach. London: Springer; 2011. p. 37–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for GMS Medizin - Bibliothek - Information.

Blog post
Luntz S. Galloping Crocodiles Ate Dinosaurs In North Africa [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Changing Patterns of Federal Aid to State and Local Governments, 1969-75. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Dec. Report No.: PAD-78-15.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blankenship K. An Analysis of Illinois Public School Funding a Descriptive Comparison of Equity: 2005 v. 2015 [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Prochnik G. Now Don’t Hear This. New York Times. 2010 May 2;WK11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleGMS Medizin - Bibliothek - Information
ISSN (print)1865-066X

Other styles