How to format your references using the GMS Medizin - Bibliothek - Information citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for GMS Medizin - Bibliothek - Information. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kirchhoff F. Neuroscience. Questionable calcium. Science. 2010 Mar 5;327(5970):1212–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jin X, Costa RM. Start/stop signals emerge in nigrostriatal circuits during sequence learning. Nature. 2010 Jul 22;466(7305):457–62.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aizen MA, Sabatino M, Tylianakis JM. Specialization and rarity predict nonrandom loss of interactions from mutualist networks. Science. 2012 Mar 23;335(6075):1486–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chang W-L, Smith RB, Wicks C, Farrell JM, Puskas CM. Accelerated uplift and magmatic intrusion of the Yellowstone caldera, 2004 to 2006. Science. 2007 Nov 9;318(5852):952–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Raheja DG, Allocco M. Assurance Technologies Principles and Practices. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
Rauscher RC. Brooklyn’s Bushwick - Urban Renewal in New York, USA: Community, Planning and Sustainable Environments. Momtaz S, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. XXVIII, 150 p. 67 illus., 34 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Altmann K-H. Preclinical Pharmacology and Structure-Activity Studies of Epothilones. In: Höfle G, Müller R, Mulzer J, Prantz K, editors. The Epothilones: An Outstanding Family of Anti-Tumor Agents: From Soil to the Clinic. Vienna: Springer; 2009. p. 157–220. (Kinghorn AD, Falk H, Kobayashi J, Herz W, Dirsch V, Gibbons S, et al., editors. Fortschritte der Chemie organischer Naturstoffe / Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for GMS Medizin - Bibliothek - Information.

Blog post
Felton J. Here’s How To Protect Your Privacy Online [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. B-2 Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993 Jul. Report No.: NSIAD-93-253R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carley R. Evaluation of the impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and hurricanes on wildfires in southeast Louisiana [Doctoral dissertation]. [Mississippi State, MS]: Mississippi State University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. Hear a Song, Pick a Side. New York Times. 2017 Sep 23;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleGMS Medizin - Bibliothek - Information
ISSN (print)1865-066X

Other styles