How to format your references using the GMS Medizin - Bibliothek - Information citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for GMS Medizin - Bibliothek - Information. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koen D. Nuts and bolts. Soft skills. Nature. 2005 May 5;435(7038):126.
A journal article with 2 authors
Metzger CH, Karrai K. Cavity cooling of a microlever. Nature. 2004 Dec 23;432(7020):1002–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Song J, Gao X, Galán JE. Structure and function of the Salmonella Typhi chimaeric A(2)B(5) typhoid toxin. Nature. 2013 Jul 18;499(7458):350–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Koscheev AP, Gromov MD, Mohapatra RK, Ott U. History of trace gases in presolar diamonds inferred from ion-implantation experiments. Nature. 2001 Aug 9;412(6847):615–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bertocchi M, Schwartz SL, Ziemba WT. Optimizing the Aging, Retirement, and Pensions Dilemma. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Ricroch A, Chopra S, Fleischer SJ, editors. Plant Biotechnology: Experience and Future Prospects. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. XIII, 291 p. 32 illus., 28 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Melia F. The Galactic Nucleus. In: Oswalt TD, Gilmore G, editors. Planets, Stars and Stellar Systems: Volume 5: Galactic Structure and Stellar Populations. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. p. 243–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for GMS Medizin - Bibliothek - Information.

Blog post
Davis J. House of Representatives Want to Limit Human Embryo Editing [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Tongass Timber Reform Act: Implementation of the Act’s Contract Modification Requirements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Jan. Report No.: RCED-95-2.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Allen SA. Dispersed Social Work: Understanding Social Presence and Organizational Identification Through the Use of New Communication Technologies [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B, Isherwood C. Speaking Out and Listening Closely. New York Times. 2016 Dec 6;AR11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleGMS Medizin - Bibliothek - Information
ISSN (print)1865-066X

Other styles