How to format your references using the GMS Medizin - Bibliothek - Information citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for GMS Medizin - Bibliothek - Information. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Siegel JM. The REM sleep-memory consolidation hypothesis. Science. 2001 Nov 2;294(5544):1058–63.
A journal article with 2 authors
Johnson CL, Spence AM. Epigenetic licensing of germline gene expression by maternal RNA in C. elegans. Science. 2011 Sep 2;333(6047):1311–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Verschure PFMJ, Voegtlin T, Douglas RJ. Environmentally mediated synergy between perception and behaviour in mobile robots. Nature. 2003 Oct 9;425(6958):620–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Schmid A, Dordick JS, Hauer B, Kiener A, Wubbolts M, Witholt B. Industrial biocatalysis today and tomorrow. Nature. 2001 Jan 11;409(6817):258–68.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bennett MR, Hacker PMS. History of Cognitive Neuroscience. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Laszlo E, Biava PM, editors. Il senso ritrovato. Milano: Springer; 2013. XXIII, 324 pagg. (I Blu — Pagine di Scienza).
A chapter in an edited book
Manfrè L. CT-/X-Ray-Guided Technique in Posterior Lumbar Spine Fusion. In: Manfrè L, editor. Spinal Instability. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 61–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for GMS Medizin - Bibliothek - Information.

Blog post
Andrew E. Surprise Finding Suggests Diabetes Drug Could Release Rather Than Prevent Blood Sugar [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Impoundments of Funds of Energy Research and Development Administration and Department of Commerce. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 May. Report No.: OGC-77-17.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Deolikar PP. Lecture Video Search Engine Using Hadoop MapReduce [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Strasser S. What’s in Your Microwave Oven? New York Times. 2017 Apr 15;A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleGMS Medizin - Bibliothek - Information
ISSN (print)1865-066X

Other styles