How to format your references using the Engineering Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Engineering Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zebrowski G. The holdouts. Nature 2000;408:775.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hsiao JC, Fong K. Making big money from small technology. Nature 2004;428:218–20.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mayya A, Banerjee A, Rajesh R. Mammalian cortical bone in tension is non-Haversian. Sci Rep 2013;3:2533.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zykov V, Mytilinaios E, Adams B, Lipson H. Robotics: self-reproducing machines. Nature 2005;435:163–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Das JC. Power System Harmonics and Passive Filter Designs. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Brun R, Carminati F, Galli Carminati G, editors. From the Web to the Grid and Beyond: Computing Paradigms Driven by High-Energy Physics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Gasmi M, Mosbahi O, Khalgui M, Gomes L. PEDASA: Priority, Energy and Deadline Aware Scheduling Algorithm. In: Fujita H, Guizzi G, editors. Intelligent Software Methodologies, Tools and Techniques: 14th International Conference, SoMet 2015, Naples, Italy, September 15-17, 2015. Proceedings, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 59–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Engineering Structures.

Blog post
Evans K. Scientists Have Invented A Smartphone-Screen Material Designed To Repair Its Own Scratches. IFLScience 2017. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Head Start: Undercover Testing Finds Fraud and Abuse at Selected Head Start Centers. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Krishna S. Pediatric Pal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Baseball Could Wait Until School Was Done. New York Times 2017:B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEngineering Structures
AbbreviationEng. Struct.
ISSN (print)0141-0296
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering

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