How to format your references using the Engineering Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Engineering Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Hoag H. Transgenic salmon still out in the cold in United States. Nature 2003;421:304.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Denchi EL, de Lange T. Protection of telomeres through independent control of ATM and ATR by TRF2 and POT1. Nature 2007;448:1068–71.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Altewischer E, van Exter MP, Woerdman JP. Plasmon-assisted transmission of entangled photons. Nature 2002;418:304–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Lobino M, Korystov D, Kupchak C, Figueroa E, Sanders BC, Lvovsky AI. Complete characterization of quantum-optical processes. Science 2008;322:563–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. List of MAK and BAT Values 2014. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2014.
An edited book
[1]
Cavalieri P, editor. Philosophy and the Politics of Animal Liberation. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Cocconcelli M, Zimroz R, Rubini R, Bartelmus W. STFT Based Approach for Ball Bearing Fault Detection in a Varying Speed Motor. In: Fakhfakh T, Bartelmus W, Chaari F, Zimroz R, Haddar M, editors. Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationary Operations: Proceedings of the Second International Conference “Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationnary Operations” CMMNO’2012, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012, p. 41–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Engineering Structures.

Blog post
[1]
Andrews R. Ferocious “Hypercarnivore” Unearthed In Northwestern Australia. IFLScience 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/ferocious-hypercarnivore-unearthed-northwestern-australia/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Energy Research: Opportunities Exist to Recover Federal Investment in Technology Development Projects. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Yang Y. Statistical Analysis of cDNA Microarrays: A Systematic Approach to Identify MTF-1 Mediated Gene Expression Profile in Response to Cadmium. Doctoral dissertation. University of Cincinnati, 2003.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Wasik JF. How Student Debt Is Snuffing Out Creative Sparks. New York Times 2017:B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEngineering Structures
AbbreviationEng. Struct.
ISSN (print)0141-0296
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering

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