How to format your references using the Engineering Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Engineering Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gies E. Recycling: Lazarus batteries. Nature 2015;526:S100-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bianco V, Franzese G. Critical behavior of a water monolayer under hydrophobic confinement. Sci Rep 2014;4:4440.
A journal article with 3 authors
Spéder P, Adám G, Noselli S. Type ID unconventional myosin controls left-right asymmetry in Drosophila. Nature 2006;440:803–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Poinern GEJ, Brundavanam RK, Thi Le X, Nicholls PK, Cake MA, Fawcett D. The synthesis, characterisation and in vivo study of a bioceramic for potential tissue regeneration applications. Sci Rep 2014;4:6235.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pavlović T, Alvarez I, Blanco-Cano R, Grisales A, Osorio A, Sánchez A. 100 Years of Spanish Cinema. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2008.
An edited book
Balas VE, Fodor J, Várkonyi-Kóczy AR, editors. New Concepts and Applications in Soft Computing. vol. 417. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Aufman J, Herrera GA. Renal Structural Changes in Type 1 and 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Pathology, Pathogenesis, and Clinical Correlations. In: Lerma EV, Batuman V, editors. Diabetes and Kidney Disease, New York, NY: Springer; 2014, p. 39–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Engineering Structures.

Blog post
Hale T. This 104-Year-Old Cyclist Is Beating The Science Of Aging. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. B-2 Bomber: Acquisition Cost Estimates. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reimer EL. Grant proposal: Support services for families of children diagnosed with autism. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B. Muguruza Cruises Through a Duel of Roland Garros Champions. New York Times 2017:B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEngineering Structures
AbbreviationEng. Struct.
ISSN (print)0141-0296
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering

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