How to format your references using the Engineering Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Engineering Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Klasse PJ. Structural biology. A new bundle of prospects for blocking HIV-1 entry. Science 2013;341:1347–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Patrinos A, Drell D. The times they are a-changin’. Nature 2002;417:589–90.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
He DZZ, Jia S, Dallos P. Mechanoelectrical transduction of adult outer hair cells studied in a gerbil hemicochlea. Nature 2004;429:766–70.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Becker L, Poreda RJ, Basu AR, Pope KO, Harrison TM, Nicholson C, et al. Bedout: a possible end-Permian impact crater offshore of northwestern Australia. Science 2004;304:1469–76.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Padgett S. Profiling the Fraudster. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2014.
An edited book
[1]
Bartz-Beielstein T, Chiarandini M, Paquete L, Preuss M, editors. Experimental Methods for the Analysis of Optimization Algorithms. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Keagle MB, Gersen SL. Basic Cytogenetics Laboratory Procedures. In: Gersen SL, Keagle MB, editors. The Principles of Clinical Cytogenetics, New York, NY: Springer; 2013, p. 53–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Engineering Structures.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. United Airlines will use Animal Poop to Power its Jets. IFLScience 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/environment/united-airlines-will-use-animal-poop-power-its-jets/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Questionable Need for All Schools Planned by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Harvey J. Predicting Cost-Inflicting Mate Retention Tactic Use in Women with Borderline Personality Features: Examining the Roles of Maladaptive Schemas and Reactive Aggression. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Yee V. Rumors Fly Among Hasidim About Abducted Man’s Death. New York Times 2014:A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEngineering Structures
AbbreviationEng. Struct.
ISSN (print)0141-0296
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering

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