How to format your references using the Movement Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Movement Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Pearse JS. Ecological role of purple sea urchins. Science. 2006;314:940–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Choi J-K, Bowles S. The coevolution of parochial altruism and war. Science. 2007;318:636–40.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Nielsen LK, Bjørnholm T, Mouritsen OG. Fluctuations caught in the act. Nature. 2000;404:352.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Mao L, Luo S, Huang Q, Lu J. Horseradish peroxidase inactivation: heme destruction and influence of polyethylene glycol. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3126.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Dao TT, Ho Ba Tho M-C. Biomechanics of the Musculoskeletal System. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Agabiti Rosei E, Mancia G, editors. Assessment of Preclinical Organ Damage in Hypertension. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Hardin PJ, Jackson MW, Shumway JM. Intraurban Population Estimation Using Remotely Sensed Imagery. In: Jensen RR, Gatrell JD, McLean D, editors. Geo-Spatial Technologies in Urban Environments: Policy, Practice, and Pixels. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p. 47–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Movement Ecology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Cheap Vaccine Has Almost Wiped Meningitis A From Africa [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Math and Science Education: Comprehensive Information About Federally Funded Materials Not Available. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000 Jul. Report No.: HEHS-00-110.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Kim S. Characterization of Ribosomal S6 Protein Phosphorylation and Posssible Control of Ribosome Biogenesis in Arabidopsis Cell Culture [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2004.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wagner J. Harvey Picks Up a Win, With Plenty of Support. New York Times. 2017 May 29;D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMovement Ecology
AbbreviationMov. Ecol.
ISSN (online)2051-3933

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