How to format your references using the Engineering Optimization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Engineering Optimization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McKay, Christopher P. 2009. “Planetary Science. Biologically Reversible Exploration.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 323 (5915): 718.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yandulov, Dmitry V., and Richard R. Schrock. 2003. “Catalytic Reduction of Dinitrogen to Ammonia at a Single Molybdenum Center.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 301 (5629): 76–78.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kiesecker, J. M., A. R. Blaustein, and L. K. Belden. 2001. “Complex Causes of Amphibian Population Declines.” Nature 410 (6829): 681–684.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Chen, H. W., K. M. Lanzetta, S. Pascarelle, and N. Yahata. 2000. “Unusual Spectral Energy Distribution of a Galaxy Previously Reported to Be at Redshift 6.68.” Nature 408 (6812): 562–564.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rohde, Ulrich L., G. C. Jain, Ajay K. Poddar, and A. K. Ghosh. 2011. Introduction to Integral Calculus. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Iijima, Shinji, and Ken-Ichi Nishijima, eds. 2006. Animal Cell Technology: Basic & Applied Aspects. Vol. 14. Animal Cell Technology: Basic & Applied Aspects. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Bezzazi, El Hassan. 2009. “Counterfactuals and Hybrid Reasoning in an Ontolog.” In Information Systems Development: Challenges in Practice, Theory, and Education Volume 2, edited by Chris Barry, Michael Lang, Wita Wojtkowski, Kieran Conboy, and Gregory Wojtkowski, 651–662. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Engineering Optimization.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Will The Presidential Candidates Have A Substantive Debate On Climate Change?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1990. Higher Education: Gaps in Parents’ and Students’ Knowledge of School Costs and Federal Aid. PEMD-90-20BR. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liao, Xiaoqun. 2006. “Creative Learning for Intelligent Robots.” Doctoral dissertation, Cincinnati, OH: University of Cincinnati.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, Kelly. 2000. “Homeless Take Control of Their Lives on the Web.” New York Times, August 20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McKay 2009).
This sentence cites two references (McKay 2009; Yandulov and Schrock 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yandulov and Schrock 2003)
  • Three authors: (Kiesecker, Blaustein, and Belden 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Chen et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleEngineering Optimization
AbbreviationEng. Optim.
ISSN (print)0305-215X
ISSN (online)1029-0273
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Management Science and Operations Research
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
Applied Mathematics
Control and Optimization

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