How to format your references using the Engineering Optimization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Engineering Optimization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stocum, David L. 2002. “Development. A Tail of Transdifferentiation.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 298 (5600): 1901–1903.
A journal article with 2 authors
Riser, Stephen C., and Kenneth S. Johnson. 2008. “Net Production of Oxygen in the Subtropical Ocean.” Nature 451 (7176): 323–325.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kolodner, Richard D., Don W. Cleveland, and Christopher D. Putnam. 2011. “Cancer. Aneuploidy Drives a Mutator Phenotype in Cancer.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 333 (6045): 942–943.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Farquhar, J., B. A. Wing, K. D. McKeegan, J. W. Harris, P. Cartigny, and M. H. Thiemens. 2002. “Mass-Independent Sulfur of Inclusions in Diamond and Sulfur Recycling on Early Earth.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 298 (5602): 2369–2372.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pétrowski, Alain, and Sana Ben-Hamida. 2017. Evolutionary Algorithms. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ambos-Spies, Klaus, Benedikt Löwe, and Wolfgang Merkle, eds. 2009. Mathematical Theory and Computational Practice: 5th Conference on Computability in Europe, CiE 2009, Heidelberg, Germany, July 19-24, 2009. Proceedings. Vol. 5635. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sturmey, Peter, and Don E. Williams. 2016. “Behavioral Assessment and Treatment: An Overview.” In Pica in Individuals with Developmental Disabilities, edited by Don E. Williams, 41–63. Autism and Child Psychopathology Series. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Engineering Optimization.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2016. “NASA Flies Satellites Through Explosion In Space – And Starts To Unravel Mystery Of Magnetism.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2010. Teen Driver Safety: Additional Research Could Help States Strengthen Graduated Driver Licensing Systems. GAO-10-544. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reller, Timothy Leonard. 2010. “Exploring Differences in Teacher Attitudes and Instructional Strategies between Traditional and Block Schedule High Schools: A Comparison of Two Small Schools.” Doctoral dissertation, St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Michael. 1992. “THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Political Memo; Republicans Re-Think ‘Family Values’ Focus.” New York Times, August 27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stocum 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Stocum 2002; Riser and Johnson 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Riser and Johnson 2008)
  • Three authors: (Kolodner, Cleveland, and Putnam 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Farquhar et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEngineering Optimization
AbbreviationEng. Optim.
ISSN (print)0305-215X
ISSN (online)1029-0273
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Management Science and Operations Research
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
Applied Mathematics
Control and Optimization

Other styles