How to format your references using the Engineering Optimization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Engineering Optimization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Collins, James J. 2009. “Journal Club. A Bioengineer Gets Schooled by Escherichia Coli.” Nature 460 (7252): 155.
A journal article with 2 authors
Steig, Eric J., and Alexander P. Wolfe. 2008. “Atmospheric Science. Sprucing up Greenland.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 320 (5883): 1595–1596.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bernasconi, Nadia L., Elisabetta Traggiai, and Antonio Lanzavecchia. 2002. “Maintenance of Serological Memory by Polyclonal Activation of Human Memory B Cells.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 298 (5601): 2199–2202.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Katoch, Akash, Gun-Joo Sun, Sun-Woo Choi, Shunichi Hishita, Vadym V. Kulish, Ping Wu, and Sang Sub Kim. 2014. “Acceptor-Compensated Charge Transport and Surface Chemical Reactions in Au-Implanted SnO₂ Nanowires.” Scientific Reports 4 (April): 4622.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saksena, Franklin B. 2015. Patient Studies in Valvular, Congenital, and Rarer Forms of Cardiovascular Disease. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Günther, Oliver P. 2008. RFID in Manufacturing. Edited by Wolfhard Kletti and Uwe Kubach. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Watson, Duane G., Andrés Buxó-Lugo, and Dominique C. Simmons. 2015. “The Effect of Phonological Encoding on Word Duration: Selection Takes Time.” In Explicit and Implicit Prosody in Sentence Processing: Studies in Honor of Janet Dean Fodor, edited by Lyn Frazier and Edward Gibson, 85–98. Studies in Theoretical Psycholinguistics. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Engineering Optimization.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. “900 Million Android Devices Could Be Vulnerable To Hackers Due To A Bug.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1969. Use of Fixed-Price Contracts for the Procurement of Studies and Investigations of Research and Development Matters. 092660. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gopalappa, Chaitra. 2010. “Three Essays on Analytical Models to Improve Early Detection of Cancer.” Doctoral dissertation, Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, Ben. 2016. “Review: ‘Danny Says,’ a Paean to a Rock Gadfly and Tastemaker.” New York Times, September 30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Collins 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Collins 2009; Steig and Wolfe 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Steig and Wolfe 2008)
  • Three authors: (Bernasconi, Traggiai, and Lanzavecchia 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Katoch et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEngineering Optimization
AbbreviationEng. Optim.
ISSN (print)0305-215X
ISSN (online)1029-0273
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Management Science and Operations Research
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
Applied Mathematics
Control and Optimization

Other styles