How to format your references using the Engineering Optimization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Engineering Optimization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wofsy, S. C. 2001. “Climate Change. Where Has All the Carbon Gone?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 292 (5525): 2261–2263.
A journal article with 2 authors
Class, Cornelia, and Steven L. Goldstein. 2005. “Evolution of Helium Isotopes in the Earth’s Mantle.” Nature 436 (7054): 1107–1112.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hsin, Jing-Ping, Amit Sheth, and James L. Manley. 2011. “RNAP II CTD Phosphorylated on Threonine-4 Is Required for Histone MRNA 3’ End Processing.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 334 (6056): 683–686.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Webster, Michael A., Daniel Kaping, Yoko Mizokami, and Paul Duhamel. 2004. “Adaptation to Natural Facial Categories.” Nature 428 (6982): 557–561.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rowlinson, Michael. 2016. A Practical Guide to the NEC3 Engineering and Construction Contract. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Ebert, Achim, Alan Dix, Nahum D. Gershon, and Margit Pohl, eds. 2011. Human Aspects of Visualization: Second IFIP WG 13.7 Workshop on Human-Computer Interaction and Visualization, HCIV (INTERACT) 2009, Uppsala, Sweden, August 24, 2009, Revised Selected Papers. Vol. 6431. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gadot, Yifat, and Gideon Koren. 2015. “Medication Use in Pregnancy; Treating the Mother: Protecting the Unborn.” In Medicines For Women, edited by Mira Harrison-Woolrych, 97–137. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Engineering Optimization.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2013. “New Species of Humpback Dolphin Discovered.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2015. Airport Finance: Information on Funding Sources and Planned Capital Development. GAO-15-306. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Narita, Daiju. 2008. “Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) and Climate Change Mitigation: An Analysis of Economic Optimality and Policy Making.” Doctoral dissertation, New York, NY: Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Harris, Elizabeth A. 2017. “Accused of Sexual Abuse, Ousted And On to the Next Teaching Job.” New York Times, April 23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wofsy 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Wofsy 2001; Class and Goldstein 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Class and Goldstein 2005)
  • Three authors: (Hsin, Sheth, and Manley 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Webster et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEngineering Optimization
AbbreviationEng. Optim.
ISSN (print)0305-215X
ISSN (online)1029-0273
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Management Science and Operations Research
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
Applied Mathematics
Control and Optimization

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