How to format your references using the Engineering Optimization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Engineering Optimization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Russo, Eugene. 2003. “Grant Schemes Supporting Scientific Entrepreneurs Have Induced Job Growth in the United States, but They Haven’t yet Crossed the Atlantic, Says Eugene Russo.” Nature 425 (6961): 988–989.
A journal article with 2 authors
Byrne, Cormac J., and Morten Eldrup. 2008. “Materials Science. Bulk Metallic Glasses.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 321 (5888): 502–503.
A journal article with 3 authors
Daubin, Vincent, Nancy A. Moran, and Howard Ochman. 2003. “Phylogenetics and the Cohesion of Bacterial Genomes.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 301 (5634): 829–832.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ke, Ailong, Kaihong Zhou, Fang Ding, Jamie H. D. Cate, and Jennifer A. Doudna. 2004. “A Conformational Switch Controls Hepatitis Delta Virus Ribozyme Catalysis.” Nature 429 (6988): 201–205.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Berg, Michael C. 2000. The Fourier-Analytic Proof of Quadratic Reciprocity. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Mus-Veteau, Isabelle, ed. 2014. Membrane Proteins Production for Structural Analysis. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Erlebach, Thomas, and Matthew Radoja. 2015. “Further Results on Capacitated Network Design Games.” In Algorithmic Game Theory: 8th International Symposium, SAGT 2015, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 28-30, 2015. Proceedings, edited by Martin Hoefer, 57–68. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Engineering Optimization.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Windowless Planes Offer Passengers Spectacular Panoramic Views.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. Aviation Insurance: Federal Insurance Program Needs Improvements to Ensure Success. RCED-94-151. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Glasgow, Heather Lovae. 2015. “Design and Selection of Probes for In Vivo Molecular Targeting and Imaging.” Doctoral dissertation, La Jolla, CA: University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira, Susan. 2017. “Another Powerful Woman. Same Sexist Attacks.” New York Times, March 5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Russo 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Russo 2003; Byrne and Eldrup 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Byrne and Eldrup 2008)
  • Three authors: (Daubin, Moran, and Ochman 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Ke et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEngineering Optimization
AbbreviationEng. Optim.
ISSN (print)0305-215X
ISSN (online)1029-0273
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Management Science and Operations Research
Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
Applied Mathematics
Control and Optimization

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