How to format your references using the Engineering Fracture Mechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Engineering Fracture Mechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Bickford D. Animal behavior: male parenting of New Guinea froglets. Nature 2002;418:601–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Mori M, Umemura M. The evolution of galaxies from primeval irregulars to present-day ellipticals. Nature 2006;440:644–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Hu H, Martina M, Jonas P. Dendritic mechanisms underlying rapid synaptic activation of fast-spiking hippocampal interneurons. Science 2010;327:52–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Bräuer SL, Cadillo-Quiroz H, Yashiro E, Yavitt JB, Zinder SH. Isolation of a novel acidiphilic methanogen from an acidic peat bog. Nature 2006;442:192–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Blackwood N. Advanced Excel Reporting for Management Accountants. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
[1]
Geroulakos G, Urk H van, Hobson RW, editors. Vascular Surgery: Cases, Questions and Commentaries. Second Edition. London: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Brenner A. Non-Intentionality of the Lived-Body. In: Tymieniecka A-T, editor. Logos of Phenomenology and Phenomenology of the Logos. Book Two: The Human Condition in-the-Unity-of-Everything-there-is-alive. Individuation, Self, Person, Self-determination, Freedom, Necessity, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006, p. 33–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Engineering Fracture Mechanics.

Blog post
[1]
Carpineti C. What The Hell Is This Bizarre Thing? IFLScience 2017. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/what-the-hell-is-this-bizarre-thing/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Technology Transfer: Improving the Use of Cooperative R&D Agreements at DOE’s Contractor-Operated Laboratories. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
John SP. Drying without Dying: The Resurrection Fern Pleopeltis polypodioides. Doctoral dissertation. University of Louisiana, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Kishkovsky S. Choir Festival to Celebrate St. Basil’s 450 Years. New York Times 2011:TR2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEngineering Fracture Mechanics
AbbreviationEng. Fract. Mech.
ISSN (print)0013-7944
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
General Materials Science

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