How to format your references using the Engineering Fracture Mechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Engineering Fracture Mechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Neylon C. Science publishing: Open access must enable open use. Nature 2012;492:348–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Yi X, Liu C. Retention of cotyledons is crucial for resprouting of clipped oak seedlings. Sci Rep 2014;4:5145.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Zou H, Zindler A, Niu Y. Constraints on melt movement beneath the East Pacific Rise from 230Th-238U disequilibrium. Science 2002;295:107–10.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Boch J, Scholze H, Schornack S, Landgraf A, Hahn S, Kay S, et al. Breaking the code of DNA binding specificity of TAL-type III effectors. Science 2009;326:1509–12.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Shi Z-J. Homogeneous Catalysis for Unreactive Bond Activation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
[1]
Wilson KC. Slurry Transport Using Centrifugal Pumps. Third Edition. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Lacomme L, Demazeau Y, Dugdale J. CLIC: An Agent-Based Interactive and Autonomous Piece of Art. In: Demazeau Y, Dignum F, Corchado JM, Pérez JB, editors. Advances in Practical Applications of Agents and Multiagent Systems: 8th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multiagent Systems (PAAMS 2010), Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010, p. 25–34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Engineering Fracture Mechanics.

Blog post
[1]
Carpineti C. Kayakers Picked Up By Whale. IFLScience 2017. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/kayakers-picked-up/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Fiscal Year 2013 Agreed-Upon Procedures: Excise Tax Distributions to the Airport and Airway Trust Fund and the Highway Trust Fund. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Jakubowski JK. Making character education a reality: An investigation of secondary teachers’ perspectives toward implementation. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Poniewozik J, Hale M, Genzlinger N. O.J., Soviet Spies and a Talking Horse. New York Times 2016:AR20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEngineering Fracture Mechanics
AbbreviationEng. Fract. Mech.
ISSN (print)0013-7944
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
General Materials Science

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