How to format your references using the Engineering Fracture Mechanics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Engineering Fracture Mechanics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Paterlini M. Anthropology: The Iceman defrosted. Nature 2011;471:34–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Arnqvist G, Rowe L. Antagonistic coevolution between the sexes in a group of insects. Nature 2002;415:787–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Baugh LR, Demodena J, Sternberg PW. RNA Pol II accumulates at promoters of growth genes during developmental arrest. Science 2009;324:92–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lai Y-K, Tang Y-X, Huang J-Y, Pan F, Chen Z, Zhang K-Q, et al. Bioinspired TiO₂ nanostructure films with special wettability and adhesion for droplets manipulation and patterning. Sci Rep 2013;3:3009.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hillis DR, Duvall JB. Improving Profitability through Green Manufacturing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Goldberg G, Prentice A, Prentice A, Filteau S, Simondon K, editors. Breast-Feeding: Early Influences on Later Health. vol. 639. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang J, Liu Z, Wu Y. Conclusion. In: Liu Z, Wu Y, editors. Human Action Recognition with Depth Cameras, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014, p. 57–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Engineering Fracture Mechanics.

Blog post
Andrew E. Modified Red Blood Cells As Cargo Ships. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. District of Columbia: Weaknesses in Personnel Records and Public Schools’ Management Information and Controls. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bortle CD. The role of mnemonic acronyms in clinical emergency medicine: A grounded theory study. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch J. Kaepernick’s Conscience. New York Times 2017:SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEngineering Fracture Mechanics
AbbreviationEng. Fract. Mech.
ISSN (print)0013-7944
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
General Materials Science

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