How to format your references using the Investigative Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Investigative Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Roy K. Evolution. Dynamics of body size evolution. Science. 2008;321(5895):1451–1452.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Voss D, Coontz R. Cosmic web. Warp and woof. Introduction to special issue. Science. 2008;319(5859):46.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Duan Q, Goodale E, Quan R-C. Bird fruit preferences match the frequency of fruit colours in tropical Asia. Sci. Rep. 2014;4:5627.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. de Boer WDAM, McGonigle C, Gregorkiewicz T, et al. Optical excitation and external photoluminescence quantum efficiency of Eu3+ in GaN. Sci. Rep. 2014;4:5235.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Crook T, Kemp PA. Transforming Private Landlords. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
1. Oraguzie NC, Rikkerink EHA, Gardiner SE, et al. eds. Association Mapping in Plants. New York, NY: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Pumijumnong N. Mangrove Forests in Thailand. In: Faridah-Hanum I, Latiff A, Hakeem KR, et al., eds. Mangrove Ecosystems of Asia: Status, Challenges and Management Strategies. New York, NY: Springer; 2014:61–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Investigative Radiology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Newly Discovered Moth Is Enigmatic Evolutionary Wonder. IFLScience. 2015. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Trade Commission: Information on Proposed Regional Restructuring Effort. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Sheah J. Reading Dreams: Representation of Dreams Through Artists’ Books. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Hayes S by T. The Way It Is. New York Times. August 11, 2017:MM15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInvestigative Radiology
AbbreviationInvest. Radiol.
ISSN (print)0020-9996
ISSN (online)1536-0210
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles