How to format your references using the Investigative Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Investigative Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Jaffe H. Public health. Whatever happened to the U.S. AIDS epidemic? Science. 2004;305(5688):1243–1244.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Solozhenko VL, Kurakevych OO. Equilibrium p-T phase diagram of boron: experimental study and thermodynamic analysis. Sci. Rep. 2013;3:2351.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Pfeffer WT, Harper JT, O’Neel S. Kinematic constraints on glacier contributions to 21st-century sea-level rise. Science. 2008;321(5894):1340–1343.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Nellist PD, Chisholm MF, Dellby N, et al. Direct sub-angstrom imaging of a crystal lattice. Science. 2004;305(5691):1741.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Moskowitz HR, Muñoz AM, Gacula MC Jr. Viewpoints and Controversies in Sensory Science and Consumer Product Testing. Trumbull, Connecticut, USA: Food & Nutrition Press, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
1. Albers B, Kuczma M eds. Continuous Media with Microstructure 2. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Shiotani M, Komaguchi K. Deuterium Labeling Studies and Quantum Effects of Radicals in Solids. In: Lund A, Shiotani M, eds. EPR of Free Radicals in Solids I: Trends in Methods and Applications. Progress in Theoretical Chemistry and Physics. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013:171–221.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Investigative Radiology.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. A Nevada Woman Died From A Bug That Resisted 26 Antibiotics — Here’s Why It’s So Hard To Develop New Ones. IFLScience. 2017. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Intelligence. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Forlizzi ML. Congruency of supervisor and counselor perceptions of actual and preferred counselor work behaviors. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Williams J. A Laugh Factory Looks Back. New York Times. November 25, 2016:BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInvestigative Radiology
AbbreviationInvest. Radiol.
ISSN (print)0020-9996
ISSN (online)1536-0210
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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