How to format your references using the Investigative Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Investigative Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Bonan GB. Forests and climate change: forcings, feedbacks, and the climate benefits of forests. Science. 2008;320(5882):1444–1449.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Zhang W, Aida T. Chemistry. Thermally responsive pulsating nanotubules. Science. 2012;337(6101):1462–1463.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Mihalcescu I, Hsing W, Leibler S. Resilient circadian oscillator revealed in individual cyanobacteria. Nature. 2004;430(6995):81–85.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Saikawa Y, Hashimoto K, Nakata M, et al. Pigment chemistry: the red sweat of the hippopotamus. Nature. 2004;429(6990):363.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Morrow E, Boaz A, Brearley S, et al. Handbook of Service User Involvement in Nursing and Healthcare Research. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
1. Prékopa A, Molnár E eds. Non-Euclidean Geometries: János Bolyai Memorial Volume. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Bronfman R. ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS IN ISRAEL. In: Linkov I, Kiker GA, Wenning RJ, eds. Environmental Security in Harbors and Coastal Areas: Management Using Comparative Risk Assessment and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis. NATO Security through Science Series. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007:81–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Investigative Radiology.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. King Arthur’s Birthplace May Have Just Been Found By Archaeologists. IFLScience. 2016. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Essential Air Service: Changes in Subsidy Levels, Air Carrier Costs, and Passenger Traffic. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Kostenbader TC. Analyzing students’ attitudes towards science during inquiry-based lessons. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Barron J. Actually, Please Don’t Swipe Again: New York’s MetroCard Will Be Phased Out. New York Times. October 23, 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInvestigative Radiology
AbbreviationInvest. Radiol.
ISSN (print)0020-9996
ISSN (online)1536-0210
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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