How to format your references using the Investigative Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Investigative Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Baker M. Genomics: The search for association. Nature. 2010;467(7319):1135–1138.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Smith BE, Braun RE. Germ cell migration across Sertoli cell tight junctions. Science. 2012;338(6108):798–802.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Rabitz HA, Hsieh MM, Rosenthal CM. Quantum optimally controlled transition landscapes. Science. 2004;303(5666):1998–2001.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Gobert V, Gottar M, Matskevich AA, et al. Dual activation of the Drosophila toll pathway by two pattern recognition receptors. Science. 2003;302(5653):2126–2130.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Vona LW. Fraud Data Analytics Methodology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
1. Chao K-M, Hsu T-S, Lee D-T eds. Algorithms and Computation: 23rd International Symposium, ISAAC 2012, Taipei, Taiwan, December 19-21, 2012. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Edge D, Blackwell AF. Peripheral Tangible Interaction. In: Bakker S, Hausen D, Selker T, eds. Peripheral Interaction: Challenges and Opportunities for HCI in the Periphery of Attention. Human–Computer Interaction Series. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016:65–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Investigative Radiology.

Blog post
1. Davis J. Viruses May Be More Infectious In The Morning Than Later In The Day. IFLScience. 2016. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. An Analysis of Concerns in Federal Education Programs: Duplication of Services and Administrative Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Gaines M. Perceptions of knowledge sharing within hybrid learning environments: As iron sharpens iron among graduate students. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Danforth J, Hart G, Billington JH, et al. Robert Byrd, Living History. New York Times. June 29, 2010:A31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInvestigative Radiology
AbbreviationInvest. Radiol.
ISSN (print)0020-9996
ISSN (online)1536-0210
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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