How to format your references using the Phytoparasitica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Phytoparasitica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wain-Hobson, S. (2013). H5N1 viral-engineering dangers will not go away. Nature, 495(7442), 411.
A journal article with 2 authors
Druzd, D., & Scheiermann, C. (2013). Immunology. Some monocytes got rhythm. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6153), 1462–1464.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lyons, J. R., Lewis, R. S., & Clayton, R. N. (2009). Comment on “Experimental test of self-shielding in vacuum ultraviolet photodissociation of CO.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5934), 1516;author reply 1516.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kramer, S. G., Kidd, T., Simpson, J. H., & Goodman, C. S. (2001). Switching repulsion to attraction: changing responses to slit during transition in mesoderm migration. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5517), 737–740.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dunlop, J., Girma, D., & Irvine, J. (2013). Digital Mobile Communications and the Tetra System. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kole, C. (Ed.). (2007). Fruits and Nuts (Vol. 4). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gouw, A. M., Hsieh, A. L., Stine, Z. E., & Dang, C. V. (2015). MYC Regulation of Metabolism and Cancer. In S. Mazurek & M. Shoshan (Eds.), Tumor Cell Metabolism: Pathways, Regulation and Biology (pp. 101–122). Vienna: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Phytoparasitica.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2015, November 12). An Enormous Piece Of Space Junk Will Crash Into The Ocean Tomorrow. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1984). Outlook for Expanding the Federal Research in Progress System (No. RCED-85-15). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Butler, B. K. (2013). Error Floors of LDPC Codes and Related Topics (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2017, February 17). Fears Both Small (Cats) and Large (Apocalypse). New York Times, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wain-Hobson 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Druzd and Scheiermann 2013; Wain-Hobson 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Druzd and Scheiermann 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Kramer et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhytoparasitica
ISSN (print)0334-2123
ISSN (online)1876-7184
ScopeInsect Science
Plant Science

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