How to format your references using the Phytoparasitica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Phytoparasitica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wang, K. (2014). Sampling biases in datasets of historical mean air temperature over land. Scientific reports, 4, 4637.
A journal article with 2 authors
Campbell, N., & Grayson, M. (2014). Index 2014 Global. Nature, 515(7526), S49.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bailey, S., Eliason, W. K., & Steitz, T. A. (2007). Structure of hexameric DnaB helicase and its complex with a domain of DnaG primase. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5849), 459–463.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hedenström, A., Johansson, L. C., Wolf, M., von Busse, R., Winter, Y., & Spedding, G. R. (2007). Bat flight generates complex aerodynamic tracks. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5826), 894–897.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ibrahim, R. A. (2017). Handbook of Structural Life Assessment. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Leung, F. K. S., Graf, K.-D., & Lopez-Real, F. J. (Eds.). (2006). Mathematics Education in Different Cultural Traditions-A Comparative Study of East Asia and the West: The 13th ICMI Study (Vol. 9). Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Hordijk, W., Steel, M., & Kauffman, S. (2013). The Origin of Life, Evolution, and Functional Organization. In P. Pontarotti (Ed.), Evolutionary Biology: Exobiology and Evolutionary Mechanisms (pp. 49–60). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Phytoparasitica.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, December 1). Trees In Cities May Actually Increase Levels Of Pollution. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2010). Telecommunications: Information Collection and Management at the Federal Communications Commission (No. GAO-10-249). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sitterding, M. C. (2014). Situation awareness and the selection of interruption handling strategies during the medication administration process: A qualitative study (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Longman, J. (2014, February 21). Formula for Upset: Arithmetic Trumps Art. New York Times, p. B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wang 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Campbell and Grayson 2014; Wang 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Campbell and Grayson 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Hedenström et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhytoparasitica
ISSN (print)0334-2123
ISSN (online)1876-7184
ScopeInsect Science
Plant Science

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