How to format your references using the Phytoparasitica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Phytoparasitica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Morbidelli, A. (2004). Planetary science: How Neptune pushed the boundaries of our Solar System. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5700), 1302–1304.
A journal article with 2 authors
Martin, C. H., & Wainwright, P. C. (2013). Multiple fitness peaks on the adaptive landscape drive adaptive radiation in the wild. Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6116), 208–211.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bloxham, J., Zatman, S., & Dumberry, M. (2002). The origin of geomagnetic jerks. Nature, 420(6911), 65–68.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhu, C., Li, H., Zeng, X. C., Wang, E. G., & Meng, S. (2013). Quantized water transport: ideal desalination through graphyne-4 membrane. Scientific reports, 3, 3163.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lacalle, D. (2014). Life in the Financial Markets. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Medina, J. E., & Vasan, N. R. (Eds.). (2016). Cancer of the Oral Cavity, Pharynx and Larynx: Evidence-Based Decision Making. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Sandkuhl, K., Stirna, J., Persson, A., & Wißotzki, M. (2014). Elicitation Approaches in Enterprise Modeling. In J. Stirna, A. Persson, & M. Wißotzki (Eds.), Enterprise Modeling: Tackling Business Challenges with the 4EM Method (pp. 39–51). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Phytoparasitica.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, September 7). Blue Whale Spotted Tangled In Fishing Line Off Southern Californian Coast. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). School Meal Programs: Implications of Adjusting Income Eligibility Thresholds and Reimbursement Rates by Geographic Differences (No. GAO-14-557). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bleicher, J. (2008). Scenario methods as a means for enhancing organizational learning: A Delphi study (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E. (1995, January 22). Ghosts Of Montero, By the Sea. New York Times, p. 134.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Morbidelli 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Martin and Wainwright 2013; Morbidelli 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Martin and Wainwright 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhu et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhytoparasitica
ISSN (print)0334-2123
ISSN (online)1876-7184
ScopeInsect Science
Plant Science

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