How to format your references using the Phytoparasitica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Phytoparasitica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawler, A. (2006). 2007 U.S. budget. NASA budget soars as shuttle lands. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5785), 280.
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Connor, P. M., & Claessens, L. P. A. M. (2005). Basic avian pulmonary design and flow-through ventilation in non-avian theropod dinosaurs. Nature, 436(7048), 253–256.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pandey, S., Goswami, G. K., & Nanda, K. K. (2013). Nanocomposite based flexible ultrasensitive resistive gas sensor for chemical reactions studies. Scientific reports, 3, 2082.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gil, L., Fuentes-Utrilla, P., Soto, A., Cervera, M. T., & Collada, C. (2004). Phylogeography: English elm is a 2,000-year-old Roman clone. Nature, 431(7012), 1053.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Willis, D. O. (2013). Business Basics for Dentists. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Xhafa, F., & Abraham, A. (Eds.). (2008). Metaheuristics for Scheduling in Industrial and Manufacturing Applications (Vol. 128). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Yeh, Y.-F., Hwang, F.-K., & Hsu, Y.-S. (2015). Applying TPACK-P to a Teacher Education Program. In Y.-S. Hsu (Ed.), Development of Science Teachers’ TPACK: East Asian Practices (pp. 71–88). Singapore: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Phytoparasitica.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, March 18). First Extraterrestrial Waves Ever Spotted On Titan. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Aviation Safety: New Regulations for Deicing Aircraft Could Be Strengthened (No. RCED-93-52). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nomberg, R. I. (2009). Understanding interest group strategies: A case study of civic leaders collaborating with local government (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2007, January 28). Nassau Has $100 Million for Open Space. New York Times, p. 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lawler 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Lawler 2006; O’Connor and Claessens 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (O’Connor and Claessens 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Gil et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhytoparasitica
ISSN (print)0334-2123
ISSN (online)1876-7184
ScopeInsect Science
Plant Science

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