How to format your references using the Phytoparasitica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Phytoparasitica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bradley, A. (2002). Mining the mouse genome. Nature, 420(6915), 512–514.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chien, P., & Weissman, J. S. (2001). Conformational diversity in a yeast prion dictates its seeding specificity. Nature, 410(6825), 223–227.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mashchenko, S., Couchman, H. M. P., & Wadsley, J. (2006). The removal of cusps from galaxy centres by stellar feedback in the early Universe. Nature, 442(7102), 539–542.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Roeffaers, M. B. J., Sels, B. F., Uji-I, H., De Schryver, F. C., Jacobs, P. A., De Vos, D. E., & Hofkens, J. (2006). Spatially resolved observation of crystal-face-dependent catalysis by single turnover counting. Nature, 439(7076), 572–575.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Keegan, K. D. (2008). Biotechnology Valuation. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Cristóbal López, A. B., Martí Vega, A., & Luque López, A. (Eds.). (2012). Next Generation of Photovoltaics: New Concepts (Vol. 165). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Toma, T. S. P., & de Souza Mendonça, M. (2014). Population Ecology of Galling Arthropods in the Neotropics. In G. W. Fernandes & J. C. Santos (Eds.), Neotropical Insect Galls (pp. 69–98). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Phytoparasitica.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 3). Our Predictions Of Solar Storms Have Not Been Very Accurate Until Now – Here’s Why. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1987). Federal Research: Small Business Innovation Research Participants Give Program High Marks (No. RCED-87-161BR). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Black, D. D. (2014). Franz Liszt’s “Via Crucis”: A summation of the composer’s styles and beliefs (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. (2017, March 2). The ‘Coolest Man’ Heads to the Library. New York Times, p. C21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bradley 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Bradley 2002; Chien and Weissman 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chien and Weissman 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Roeffaers et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhytoparasitica
ISSN (print)0334-2123
ISSN (online)1876-7184
ScopeInsect Science
Plant Science

Other styles