How to format your references using the Phytoparasitica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Phytoparasitica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lohmann, K. J. (2010). Q&A: Animal behaviour: Magnetic-field perception. Nature, 464(7292), 1140–1142.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lyons, J. R., & Young, E. D. (2005). CO self-shielding as the origin of oxygen isotope anomalies in the early solar nebula. Nature, 435(7040), 317–320.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, A. S. Y., Kranzusch, P. J., & Cate, J. H. D. (2015). eIF3 targets cell-proliferation messenger RNAs for translational activation or repression. Nature, 522(7554), 111–114.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Andersson, M., Malehmir, A., Troll, V. R., Dehghannejad, M., Juhlin, C., & Ask, M. (2013). Carbonatite ring-complexes explained by caldera-style volcanism. Scientific reports, 3, 1677.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wittcoff, H. A., Reuben, B. G., & Plotkin, J. S. (2012). Industrial Organic Chemicals. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Jiang, X. (2013). Android Malware. (Y. Zhou, Ed.). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lu, T., Vo, B., Nguyen, H. T., & Hong, T.-P. (2014). A New Method for Mining High Average Utility Itemsets. In K. Saeed & V. Snášel (Eds.), Computer Information Systems and Industrial Management: 13th IFIP TC8 International Conference, CISIM 2014, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, November 5-7, 2014. Proceedings (pp. 33–42). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Phytoparasitica.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, August 25). The World’s Largest Pyramid Is Hidden Under A Hill. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1975). Federal Materials Research and Development: Modernizing Institutions and Management (No. OSP-76-9). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tuschall, A. (2017). Exploration of the Relationship Between Implicit Theory of Intelligence and Employability (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx, L. (2011, March 27). Lori McCoy and Edwin Rossman Jr. New York Times, p. ST15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lohmann 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Lohmann 2010; Lyons and Young 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lyons and Young 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Andersson et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhytoparasitica
ISSN (print)0334-2123
ISSN (online)1876-7184
ScopeInsect Science
Plant Science

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