How to format your references using the Energy Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Deshaies, R.J., 2014. Structural biology: Corralling a protein-degradation regulator. Nature 512, 145–146.
A journal article with 2 authors
Xu, X., Norell, M.A., 2004. A new troodontid dinosaur from China with avian-like sleeping posture. Nature 431, 838–841.
A journal article with 3 authors
Peters, C.J., Fedida, D., Accili, E.A., 2013. Allosteric coupling of the inner activation gate to the outer pore of a potassium channel. Sci. Rep. 3, 3025.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hirowatari, Y., Yoshida, H., Kurosawa, H., Manita, D., Tada, N., 2014. Automated measurement method for the determination of vitamin E in plasma lipoprotein classes. Sci. Rep. 4, 4086.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Muccini, M., Toffanin, S., 2016. Organic Light-Emitting Transistors. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Bessis, N., Dobre, C. (Eds.), 2014. Big Data and Internet of Things: A Roadmap for Smart Environments, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Craven, R., Toni, F., Williams, M., 2014. Graph-Based Dispute Derivations in Assumption-Based Argumentation, in: Black, E., Modgil, S., Oren, N. (Eds.), Theory and Applications of Formal Argumentation: Second International Workshop, TAFA 2013, Beijing, China, August 3-5, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 46–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy Economics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Short, Sharp Shocks Let Slip The Stories Of Supernovae [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1974. Subcontract Estimate For E-2c Passive Detection Systems in Prime Contract With Grumman Aerospace Corporation (No. 093158). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Xiong, Y., 2008. Immuno-Magnetic T Cell Depletion for Allogeneic Hematological Stem Cell Transplantation (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland, J., 2017. Staying ‘in the ’Hood, Up to No Good’. New York Times MB2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Deshaies, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Deshaies, 2014; Xu and Norell, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Xu and Norell, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Hirowatari et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy Economics
AbbreviationEnergy Econ.
ISSN (print)0140-9883
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
General Energy

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