How to format your references using the Energy Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Diamond, J., 2007. Archaeology. Easter Island revisited. Science 317, 1692–1694.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee, J.-H., Paull, T.T., 2005. ATM activation by DNA double-strand breaks through the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex. Science 308, 551–554.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bland-Hawthorn, J., Harwit, A., Harwit, M., 2002. Astronomy. Laser telemetry from space. Science 297, 523.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
van de Koppel, J., Gascoigne, J.C., Theraulaz, G., Rietkerk, M., Mooij, W.M., Herman, P.M.J., 2008. Experimental evidence for spatial self-organization and its emergent effects in mussel bed ecosystems. Science 322, 739–742.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saleh, A.K.M.E., Arashi, M., Tabatabaey, S.M.M., 2014. Statistical Inference for Models with Multivariate t -Distributed Errors. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Jandial, R., Chen, M.Y. (Eds.), 2012. Regenerative Biology of the Spine and Spinal Cord, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Chan, L., Chan, L., 2013. The Male Patient, in: Chan, L., Tse, V. (Eds.), Multidisciplinary Care of Urinary Incontinence: A Handbook for Health Professionals. Springer, London, pp. 47–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy Economics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Scientists Have Developed A Flying Tricycle [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Schools and Libraries Corporation: Actions Needed to Strengthen Program Integrity Operations Before Committing Funds (No. T-RCED-98-243). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Detoya, M.S., 2017. Canned Food Choices of College Students Using the Nuval ® Nutrient-Profiling System (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J., 2017. When a Brooklyn Graveyard Can’t Expand Outward, It Looks Within. New York Times A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Diamond, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Diamond, 2007; Lee and Paull, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lee and Paull, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (van de Koppel et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy Economics
AbbreviationEnergy Econ.
ISSN (print)0140-9883
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
General Energy

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