How to format your references using the Energy Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cravens, T.E., 2002. X-ray emission from comets. Science 296, 1042–1045.
A journal article with 2 authors
Abouheif, E., Wray, G.A., 2002. Evolution of the gene network underlying wing polyphenism in ants. Science 297, 249–252.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tuff, J., Wade, J., Wood, B.J., 2013. Volcanism on Mars controlled by early oxidation of the upper mantle. Nature 498, 342–345.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Porath, D., Bezryadin, A., de Vries, S., Dekker, C., 2000. Direct measurement of electrical transport through DNA molecules. Nature 403, 635–638.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Spatschek, K.-H., 2011. High Temperature Plasmas. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Moreau, L., Foster, I. (Eds.), 2006. Provenance and Annotation of Data: International Provenance and Annotation Workshop, IPAW 2006, Chicago, IL, USA, May 3-5, 2006, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
David, M., 2016. The Legacy of Napster, in: Nowak, R., Whelan, A. (Eds.), Networked Music Cultures: Contemporary Approaches, Emerging Issues. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp. 49–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy Economics.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. Underwater Robot Reveals Colorful Explosion Of Life Beneath Antarctica [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Progress Made in Compliance of VA Systems, But Concerns Remain (No. AIMD-98-237). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roberts, D.M., 2017. Resilience in Physically Maltreated Adolescents: Interpersonally Related Protective Factors and Gender Differences (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K., 2006. No Sawdust, But a Real Pit. New York Times NJ6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cravens, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Abouheif and Wray, 2002; Cravens, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Abouheif and Wray, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Porath et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy Economics
AbbreviationEnergy Econ.
ISSN (print)0140-9883
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
General Energy

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