How to format your references using the Energy Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Freeman, K.C., 2006. Astronomy. Sorting out the colors of globular clusters. Science 311, 1105–1106.
A journal article with 2 authors
Francesconi, M., Lehner, B., 2014. The effects of genetic variation on gene expression dynamics during development. Nature 505, 208–211.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sazonov, S.Y., Lutovinov, A.A., Sunyaev, R.A., 2004. An apparently normal gamma-ray burst with an unusually low luminosity. Nature 430, 646–648.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
de Bruin, D., Zaman, Z., Liberatore, R.A., Ptashne, M., 2001. Telomere looping permits gene activation by a downstream UAS in yeast. Nature 409, 109–113.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tadros, T.F., 2009. Colloids in Agrochemicals. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Lin, W., Xu, D., Ho, A., Wu, J., He, Y., Cai, J., Kankanhalli, M., Sun, M.-T. (Eds.), 2012. Advances in Multimedia Information Processing – PCM 2012: 13th Pacific-Rim Conference on Multimedia, Singapore, December 4-6, 2012. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Noguera, E., Llopis, F., 2008. Applying Query Expansion Techniques to Ad Hoc Monolingual Tasks with the IR-n System, in: Peters, C., Jijkoun, V., Mandl, T., Müller, H., Oard, D.W., Peñas, A., Petras, V., Santos, D. (Eds.), Advances in Multilingual and Multimodal Information Retrieval: 8th Workshop of the Cross-Language Evaluation Forum, CLEF 2007, Budapest, Hungary, September 19-21, 2007, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 45–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy Economics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Study Suggests Rats Capable Of Feeling Regret Over Poor Choices [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2013. IRS Website: Long-Term Strategy Needed to Improve Interactive Services (No. GAO-13-435). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Banerjee, S., 2013. A mathematical model for the transition in firing patterns across puberty of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuron (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon, M.R., 2017. Mattis Beseeches Pacific Officials to ‘Bear With Us.’ New York Times A5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Freeman, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Francesconi and Lehner, 2014; Freeman, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Francesconi and Lehner, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (de Bruin et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy Economics
AbbreviationEnergy Econ.
ISSN (print)0140-9883
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
General Energy

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