How to format your references using the Energy Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Riley, S., 2007. Large-scale spatial-transmission models of infectious disease. Science 316, 1298–1301.
A journal article with 2 authors
Richmond, B.G., Strait, D.S., 2000. Evidence that humans evolved from a knuckle-walking ancestor. Nature 404, 382–385.
A journal article with 3 authors
Palop, J.J., Chin, J., Mucke, L., 2006. A network dysfunction perspective on neurodegenerative diseases. Nature 443, 768–773.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Shima, K., Isoda, M., Mushiake, H., Tanji, J., 2007. Categorization of behavioural sequences in the prefrontal cortex. Nature 445, 315–318.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Simonović, S.P., 2010. Systems Approach to Management of Disasters. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Root, R., 2006. A Tester’s Guide to .NET Programming. Apress, Berkeley, CA.
A chapter in an edited book
Hood-Daniel, P., Kelly, J.F., 2011. Cutting the Parts II, in: Kelly, J.F. (Ed.), Printing in Plastic: Build Your Own 3D Printer. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp. 49–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy Economics.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2016. How Do We Tell The World That We’ve Found Alien Life? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2017. Information Technology: Implementation of IT Reform Law and Related Initiatives Can Help Improve Acquisitions (No. GAO-17-494T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chung, E.K., 2003. The Sophisticated Genetic Diversities of Human Complement Component C4 and RCCX Modules in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M.J.O., 2015. Weekend Entertainments From the Archives of The New York Times. New York Times C25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Riley, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Richmond and Strait, 2000; Riley, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Richmond and Strait, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Shima et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy Economics
AbbreviationEnergy Econ.
ISSN (print)0140-9883
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
General Energy

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