How to format your references using the Journal of Financial Intermediation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Financial Intermediation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hughes, V., 2012. Public health: Where there’s smoke. Nature 489, S18-20.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nagamatsu, S., Ohara-Imaizumi, M., 2007. Cell biology. IP7 debut in insulin release. Science 318, 1249–1250.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mignot, T., Merlie, J.P., Jr, Zusman, D.R., 2005. Regulated pole-to-pole oscillations of a bacterial gliding motility protein. Science 310, 855–857.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Strohmaier, H., Spruck, C.H., Kaiser, P., Won, K.A., Sangfelt, O., Reed, S.I., 2001. Human F-box protein hCdc4 targets cyclin E for proteolysis and is mutated in a breast cancer cell line. Nature 413, 316–322.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maini, A.K., Agrawal, V., 2006. Satellite Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Cristiani, E., 2014. Multiscale Modeling of Pedestrian Dynamics, MS&A, Modeling, Simulation and Applications. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Cal Neto, J.T., Tomei, C., 2013. A Numerical Algorithm for Ambrosetti–Prodi Type Operators, in: de Moura, C.A., Kubrusly, C.S. (Eds.), The Courant–Friedrichs–Lewy (CFL) Condition: 80 Years After Its Discovery. Birkhäuser, Boston, MA, pp. 65–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Financial Intermediation.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2017. T. Rex Probably Looked Just As Fearsome As You Thought, Not Fluffy With Feathers [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. Higher Education: Selected Information on Student Financial Aid Received by Legal Immigrants (No. HEHS-96-7). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gravano, A., 2009. Turn-taking and affirmative cue words in task-oriented dialogue (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J., 2016. Together Again, for Now: Hold Steady in Brooklyn. New York Times C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hughes, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Hughes, 2012; Nagamatsu and Ohara-Imaizumi, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nagamatsu and Ohara-Imaizumi, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Strohmaier et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Financial Intermediation
ISSN (print)1042-9573
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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