How to format your references using the Empirical Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Empirical Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O’Keeffe M (2002) Edge effects. Nature 419:28–29
A journal article with 2 authors
Vasseur DA, Fox JW (2009) Phase-locking and environmental fluctuations generate synchrony in a predator-prey community. Nature 460:1007–1010
A journal article with 3 authors
Dial KP, Jackson BE, Segre P (2008) A fundamental avian wing-stroke provides a new perspective on the evolution of flight. Nature 451:985–989
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Abo-Shaeer JR, Raman C, Vogels JM, Ketterle W (2001) Observation of vortex lattices in Bose-Einstein condensates. Science 292:476–479

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Machin D, Campbell MJ (2005) Design of Studies for Medical Research. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Hostettler S, Gadgil A, Hazboun E (eds) (2015) Sustainable Access to Energy in the Global South: Essential Technologies and Implementation Approaches. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Lavretsky E, Wise KA (2013) Frequency Domain Analysis. In: Wise KA (ed) Robust and Adaptive Control: With Aerospace Applications. Springer, London, pp 97–160

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Empirical Economics.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) Is It A Bad Idea To Give Your Cats Brain Freeze? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Motor Carrier Safety: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Has Developed a Reasonable Framework for Managing and Testing Its Comprehensive Safety Analysis 2010 Initiative. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Potter RH (2009) Diffusion of oxygen and lithium isotopes at a contact between the Bushveld Complex and metasedimentary rock: Implications for the timescale of Phepane Dome diapirism. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bilefsky D, Castle S (2013) Britain Says Equine Drug May Be in Food Chain. New York Times A6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (O’Keeffe 2002).
This sentence cites two references (O’Keeffe 2002; Vasseur and Fox 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vasseur and Fox 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Abo-Shaeer et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleEmpirical Economics
AbbreviationEmpir. Econ.
ISSN (print)0377-7332
ISSN (online)1435-8921
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Mathematics (miscellaneous)
Statistics and Probability
Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

Other styles