How to format your references using the Empirical Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Empirical Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fray D (2013) Metallurgy: iron production electrified. Nature 497:324–325
A journal article with 2 authors
Ahn NG, Resing KA (2005) Cell biology. Lessons in rational drug design for protein kinases. Science 308:1266–1267
A journal article with 3 authors
Cheianov VV, Fal’ko V, Altshuler BL (2007) The focusing of electron flow and a Veselago lens in graphene p-n junctions. Science 315:1252–1255
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Schellekens M, Hoppeler R, Perrin A, et al (2005) Hanbury Brown Twiss effect for ultracold quantum gases. Science 310:648–651

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
MacClancy J (2013) Anthropology in the Public Arena. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Chichester, UK
An edited book
D’hooghe M, Ha H-J (eds) (2016) Synthesis of 4- to 7-membered Heterocycles by Ring Expansion: Aza-, oxa- and thiaheterocyclic small-ring systems, 1st ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Maher MJ (2016) Resistance to Corruption of General Strategic Argumentation. In: Baldoni M, Chopra AK, Son TC, et al. (eds) PRIMA 2016: Principles and Practice of Multi-Agent Systems: 19th International Conference, Phuket, Thailand, August 22-26, 2016, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 61–75

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Empirical Economics.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Immunotherapy Drugs Could Herald New Era In Cancer Treatment. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2008) Next Generation Air Transportation System: Status of Systems Acquisition and the Transition to the Next Generation Air Transportation System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hertzman R (2013) Yemen’s migrant networks as critical factor in political opposition to the Imamate. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Anderson J (2016) A Call to ‘Respect the Feathers.’ New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fray 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Ahn and Resing 2005; Fray 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ahn and Resing 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Schellekens et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEmpirical Economics
AbbreviationEmpir. Econ.
ISSN (print)0377-7332
ISSN (online)1435-8921
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Mathematics (miscellaneous)
Statistics and Probability
Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

Other styles