How to format your references using the Empirical Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Empirical Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P (2005) Cultivating black gold. Nature 433:779
A journal article with 2 authors
Premkumar LS, Ahern GP (2000) Induction of vanilloid receptor channel activity by protein kinase C. Nature 408:985–990
A journal article with 3 authors
Pascalis O, de Haan M, Nelson CA (2002) Is face processing species-specific during the first year of life? Science 296:1321–1323
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Wolf M, van Doorn GS, Leimar O, Weissing FJ (2007) Life-history trade-offs favour the evolution of animal personalities. Nature 447:581–584

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scharf T (2006) Polarized Light in Liquid Crystals and Polymers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Church K, Bascia N, Shragge E (eds) (2008) Learning through Community: Exploring Participatory Practices. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Hayashi M, Edwards DB (2016) Policy Intention versus Policy Implementation. In: Kitamura Y, Edwards DB, Sitha C, Williams JH (eds) The Political Economy of Schooling in Cambodia: Issues of Quality and Equity. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY, pp 77–98

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Empirical Economics.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Vacation To The Moon For $150 Million. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/space/vacation-moon-150-million/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) Special Education: Congressional Action Needed to Improve Chapter 1 Handicapped Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nuñez EM (2017) Getting H.I.P. with First-Generation College Students: Decolonizing the High Impact Practice Movement. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2008) Case on Police Searches Pits State Laws Against Federal. New York Times A15

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Premkumar and Ahern 2000; Smaglik 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Premkumar and Ahern 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Wolf et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEmpirical Economics
AbbreviationEmpir. Econ.
ISSN (print)0377-7332
ISSN (online)1435-8921
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Mathematics (miscellaneous)
Statistics and Probability
Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

Other styles