How to format your references using the Empirical Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Empirical Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goto H (2014) Step-by-step magic state encoding for efficient fault-tolerant quantum computation. Sci Rep 4:7501
A journal article with 2 authors
Ehrenfreund P, Foing BH (2010) Astronomy. Fullerenes and cosmic carbon. Science 329:1159–1160
A journal article with 3 authors
Shema R, Sacktor TC, Dudai Y (2007) Rapid erasure of long-term memory associations in the cortex by an inhibitor of PKM zeta. Science 317:951–953
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Macintosh AJJ, Pelletier L, Chiaradia A, et al (2013) Temporal fractals in seabird foraging behaviour: diving through the scales of time. Sci Rep 3:1884

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith DA, van de Waterbeemd H, Walker DK (2006) Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism in Drug Design: SMITH: PHARMACOKINETICS AND METABOLISM IN DRUG DESIGN O-BK. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG
An edited book
Wagon S (ed) (2010) Mathematica in Action: Problem Solving Through Visualization and Computation, 3rd edn. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Oka Y, Koshizuka S, Ishiwatari Y, Yamaji A (2010) Plant Dynamics and Control. In: Koshizuka S, Ishiwatari Y, Yamaji A (eds) Super Light Water Reactors and Super Fast Reactors: Supercritical-Pressure Light Water Cooled Reactors. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 241–267

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Empirical Economics.

Blog post
Luntz S (2016) Organic Molecules That Glow At Room Temperature Make Energy-Efficient Lights. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) Highway Infrastructure: Quality Improvements Would Safeguard Billions of Dollars Already Invested. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Luo SX (2009) Theoretical models of olfactory discrimination in Drosophila. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hansen K (2013) Even a Rock Star Has to Be Careful. New York Times B6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goto 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Ehrenfreund and Foing 2010; Goto 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ehrenfreund and Foing 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Macintosh et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEmpirical Economics
AbbreviationEmpir. Econ.
ISSN (print)0377-7332
ISSN (online)1435-8921
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Mathematics (miscellaneous)
Statistics and Probability
Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

Other styles