How to format your references using the Empirical Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Empirical Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thauer RK (2007) Microbiology. A fifth pathway of carbon fixation. Science 318:1732–1733
A journal article with 2 authors
Engel H-A, Loss D (2005) Fermionic bell-state analyzer for spin qubits. Science 309:586–588
A journal article with 3 authors
Nishimune H, Sanes JR, Carlson SS (2004) A synaptic laminin-calcium channel interaction organizes active zones in motor nerve terminals. Nature 432:580–587
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Yoshimura T, Yasuo S, Watanabe M, et al (2003) Light-induced hormone conversion of T4 to T3 regulates photoperiodic response of gonads in birds. Nature 426:178–181

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cox DA (2004) Galois Theory. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
De Kok LJ, Hawkesford MJ, Rennenberg H, et al (eds) (2015) Molecular Physiology and Ecophysiology of Sulfur, 1st ed. 2015. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Hara S (2007) Fundamentals of Multi-carrier CDMA Technologies. In: Park Y, Adachi F (eds) Enhanced Radio Access Technologies for Next Generation Mobile Communication. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 121–150

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Empirical Economics.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) Fish Spotted Stuck Inside Jellyfish, Regrets Everything. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/fish-spotted-stuck-inside-jellyfish-regrets-everything/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004) Telecommunications: German DTV Transition Differs from U.S. Transition in Many Respects, but Certain Key Challenges Are Similar. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Spisak GM (2012) Particulation. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
James G (2000) Talking and Driving: Growing Road Menace? New York Times 14NJ1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Thauer 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Engel and Loss 2005; Thauer 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Engel and Loss 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Yoshimura et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleEmpirical Economics
AbbreviationEmpir. Econ.
ISSN (print)0377-7332
ISSN (online)1435-8921
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Mathematics (miscellaneous)
Statistics and Probability
Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

Other styles