How to format your references using the Empirical Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Empirical Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grinnell F (2013) It is time to update US biomedical funding. Nature 501:137
A journal article with 2 authors
Vaughn D, Strathmann RR (2008) Predators induce cloning in echinoderm larvae. Science 319:1503
A journal article with 3 authors
Yu D, Wang C, Guyot-Sionnest P (2003) n-Type conducting CdSe nanocrystal solids. Science 300:1277–1280
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Jin C, Zhang J, Li X, et al (2013) Injectable 3-D fabrication of medical electronics at the target biological tissues. Sci Rep 3:3442

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Renaud B, Kim K-H, Cho M (2016) Dynamics of Housing in East Asia. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Corchado E, Wu X, Oja E, et al (eds) (2009) Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Systems: 4th International Conference, HAIS 2009, Salamanca, Spain, June 10-12, 2009. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Moghaddam B, Pehrson AL (2010) Disinhibition of Prefrontal Cortex Neurons in Schizophrenia. In: Gattaz WF, Busatto G (eds) Advances in Schizophrenia Research 2009. Springer, New York, NY, pp 99–111

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Empirical Economics.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Human-Like Robot Beats Other Bots In DARPA’s Robotics Challenge. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996) Education and Labor: Information on the Departments’ Field Offices. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gu P (2017) Advanced Nonlinear Control and Estimation Methods for AC Power Generation Systems. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gurley G (2010) Titans in Party Dresses: Socialite, debutante, advocate: all spell Hadley Marie Nagel, who at 19 boasts a résumé over the top. New York Times ST1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grinnell 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Vaughn and Strathmann 2008; Grinnell 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vaughn and Strathmann 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Jin et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEmpirical Economics
AbbreviationEmpir. Econ.
ISSN (print)0377-7332
ISSN (online)1435-8921
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Mathematics (miscellaneous)
Statistics and Probability
Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

Other styles