How to format your references using the Asia-Pacific Financial Markets citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asia-Pacific Financial Markets. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dushoff, J. (2004). Comment on “Metapopulation persistence with age-dependent disturbance or succession.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5671), 684; author reply 684.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lu, Q., & Lemke, G. (2001). Homeostatic regulation of the immune system by receptor tyrosine kinases of the Tyro 3 family. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5528), 306–311.
A journal article with 3 authors
Naylor, R. L., Williams, S. L., & Strong, D. R. (2001). Ecology. Aquaculture--a gateway for exotic species. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5547), 1655–1656.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kamalakar, M. V., Dankert, A., Bergsten, J., Ive, T., & Dash, S. P. (2014). Enhanced tunnel spin injection into graphene using chemical vapor deposited hexagonal boron nitride. Scientific reports, 4, 6146.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Massad, J. J., Cagna, D. R., Goodacre, C. J., Wicks, R. A., & Ahuja, S. A. (2017). Application of the Neutral Zone in Prosthodontics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Wong, B. T. (2008). Thermal Transport for Applications in Micro/Nanomachining. (M. P. Mengüç, Ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Mesiar, R., Li, J., & Pap, E. (2011). Pseudo-concave Integrals. In S. Li, X. Wang, Y. Okazaki, J. Kawabe, T. Murofushi, & L. Guan (Eds.), Nonlinear Mathematics for Uncertainty and its Applications (pp. 43–49). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asia-Pacific Financial Markets.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, September 29). The Martian: A Perfect Balance Of Scientific Accuracy And Gripping Fiction. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Highway Infrastructure: Quality Improvements Would Safeguard Billions of Dollars Already Invested (No. RCED-94-198). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bernstein, J. P. (2010). Helical Symmetry (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nir, S. M., & Barron, J. (2017, July 4). Relief and Trepidation as Ride-Hailing Services Become Legal Across New York. New York Times, p. A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dushoff 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Dushoff 2004; Lu and Lemke 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lu and Lemke 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Kamalakar et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAsia-Pacific Financial Markets
AbbreviationAsia-Pac. Financ. Mark.
ISSN (print)1387-2834
ISSN (online)1573-6946

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