How to format your references using the Asia-Pacific Financial Markets citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asia-Pacific Financial Markets. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nathan, C. (2015). IMMUNOLOGY. From transient infection to chronic disease. Science (New York, N.Y.), 350(6257), 161.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brodsky, E. E., & Lay, T. (2014). Geophysics. Recognizing foreshocks from the 1 April 2014 Chile earthquake. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6185), 700–702.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smith, J., Theodoris, C., & Davidson, E. H. (2007). A gene regulatory network subcircuit drives a dynamic pattern of gene expression. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5851), 794–797.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bilic, J., Huang, Y.-L., Davidson, G., Zimmermann, T., Cruciat, C.-M., Bienz, M., & Niehrs, C. (2007). Wnt induces LRP6 signalosomes and promotes dishevelled-dependent LRP6 phosphorylation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5831), 1619–1622.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ghaye, T. (2008). Developing the Reflective Healthcare Team. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Rajasekaran, S. (Ed.). (2009). Bioinformatics and Computational Biology: First International Conference, BICoB 2009, New Orleans, LA, USA, April 8-10, 2009. Proceedings (Vol. 5462). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Selvan, S. T., & Narayanan, K. (2016). Multifunctional Nanoparticles. In K. Narayanan (Ed.), Introduction to Nanotheranostics (pp. 69–79). Singapore: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asia-Pacific Financial Markets.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2015, October 14). The Best Snaps From The Wildlife Photographer Of The Year 2015. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Intercollegiate Athletics: Compensation Varies for Selected Personnel in Athletic Departments (No. HRD-92-121). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Webber, N. T. (2012). Peptide ion conformation studies and the 157 nm photofragmentation of arginine containing dipeptides (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M. (2017, August 17). Carmen de Lavallade Skips Trump Reception. New York Times, p. C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nathan 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Brodsky and Lay 2014; Nathan 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brodsky and Lay 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Bilic et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleAsia-Pacific Financial Markets
AbbreviationAsia-Pac. Financ. Mark.
ISSN (print)1387-2834
ISSN (online)1573-6946

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