How to format your references using the Asia-Pacific Financial Markets citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asia-Pacific Financial Markets. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Keszthelyi, L. P. (2011). Planetary science: Europa awakening. Nature, 479(7374), 485.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kurzban, R., & Barrett, H. C. (2012). Behavior. Origins of cumulative culture. Science (New York, N.Y.), 335(6072), 1056–1057.
A journal article with 3 authors
Salganik, M. J., Dodds, P. S., & Watts, D. J. (2006). Experimental study of inequality and unpredictability in an artificial cultural market. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5762), 854–856.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Luecke, H., Schobert, B., Lanyi, J. K., Spudich, E. N., & Spudich, J. L. (2001). Crystal structure of sensory rhodopsin II at 2.4 angstroms: insights into color tuning and transducer interaction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5534), 1499–1503.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Troppens, U., Erkens, R., & Müller, W. (2004). Storage Networks Explained. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Tak, P.-P. (Ed.). (2009). New Therapeutic Targets in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Basel: Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Press, F., & Smith, P. M. (2010). Science and Technology in the Carter Presidency. In R. Pielke & R. A. Klein (Eds.), Presidential Science Advisors: Perspectives and Reflections on Science, Policy and Politics (pp. 37–56). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asia-Pacific Financial Markets.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, August 17). What’s The Best Way To Go To The Toilet – Squatting Or Sitting? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1976). Use of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s ATS-6 Communications Satellite To Broadcast Educational Television Programs in India (No. ID-76-75). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Meissner, R. (2009). Analyzing inpatient hospital costs by payer: What do they mean for the future of health care in America? (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017, July 6). Film Series. New York Times, p. C20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Keszthelyi 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Keszthelyi 2011; Kurzban and Barrett 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kurzban and Barrett 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Luecke et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleAsia-Pacific Financial Markets
AbbreviationAsia-Pac. Financ. Mark.
ISSN (print)1387-2834
ISSN (online)1573-6946

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