How to format your references using the Asia-Pacific Financial Markets citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asia-Pacific Financial Markets. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Laloë, F. (2003). Obituary: Jean Brossel (1918-2003). Nature, 422(6929), 274.
A journal article with 2 authors
Martinez, F., & Taylor, B. (2002). Mantle wedge control on back-arc crustal accretion. Nature, 416(6879), 417–420.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pichersky, E., Noel, J. P., & Dudareva, N. (2006). Biosynthesis of plant volatiles: nature’s diversity and ingenuity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5762), 808–811.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Schulz, M., Moshammer, R., Fischer, D., Kollmus, H., Madison, D. H., Jones, S., & Ullrich, J. (2003). Three-dimensional imaging of atomic four-body processes. Nature, 422(6927), 48–50.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
O’Neil, P. V. (2008). Beginning Partial Differential Equations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Magnuson, J. A., & Fu, P. C., Jr. (Eds.). (2014). Public Health Informatics and Information Systems (2nd ed. 2014.). London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Jiang, T., & Feng, J. (2013). Algorithms in Computational Biology. In R. Jiang, X. Zhang, & M. Q. Zhang (Eds.), Basics of Bioinformatics: Lecture Notes of the Graduate Summer School on Bioinformatics of China (pp. 151–161). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asia-Pacific Financial Markets.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 12). Cuba Has A Lung Cancer Vaccine, And Now It Could Be Coming To The USA. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). GAO Report on Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Highway Trust Fund Excise Taxes (No. AIMD-00-82R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Flamenco, E. (2015). A financial abuse prevention program for older adults: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, J. (1977, April 3). Guadalajara: “The Biggest Small Town in the World”; Guadalajara: “The Biggest Small Town in the World.” New York Times, p. Travel-Spring Vacations335.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Laloë 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Laloë 2003; Martinez and Taylor 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Martinez and Taylor 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Schulz et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleAsia-Pacific Financial Markets
AbbreviationAsia-Pac. Financ. Mark.
ISSN (print)1387-2834
ISSN (online)1573-6946

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