How to format your references using the Climate of the Past citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Climate of the Past. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Deweerdt, S.: Comparative biology: Naked ambition, Nature, 509(7502), S60-1, 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weaver, A. J. and Hillaire-Marcel, C.: Ocean science. Global warming and the next ice age, Science, 304(5669), 400–402, 2004.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yin, J., Sun, Y. and Ge, F.: Reduced plant nutrition under elevated CO₂ depresses the immunocompetence of cotton bollworm against its endoparasite, Sci. Rep., 4, 4538, 2014.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Fulde, M., Sommer, F., Chassaing, B., van Vorst, K., Dupont, A., Hensel, M., Basic, M., Klopfleisch, R., Rosenstiel, P., Bleich, A., Bäckhed, F., Gewirtz, A. T. and Hornef, M. W.: Publisher Correction: Neonatal selection by Toll-like receptor 5 influences long-term gut microbiota composition, Nature, 563(7731), E25, 2018.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mazer, A.: Shifting the Earth, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ., 2011.
An edited book
Neck, R., Richter, C. and Mooslechner, P., Eds.: Quantitative Economic Policy: Essays in Honour of Andrew Hughes Hallett, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Ben Mrad, A., Delcroix, V., Maalej, M. A., Piechowiak, S. and Abid, M.: Uncertain Evidence in Bayesian Networks: Presentation and Comparison on a Simple Example, in Advances in Computational Intelligence: 14th International Conference on Information Processing and Management of Uncertainty in Knowledge-Based Systems, IPMU 2012, Catania, Italy, July 9-13, 2012, Proceedings, Part III, edited by S. Greco, B. Bouchon-Meunier, G. Coletti, M. Fedrizzi, B. Matarazzo, and R. R. Yager, pp. 39–48, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg., 2012.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Climate of the Past.

Blog post
Andrews, R.: Over 9,000 Women In Science Rally To Fight Hate Given Voice Following US Election, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Intercollegiate Athletics: Comparison of Selected Characteristics for Men’s and Women’s Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sripinit, T.: How Much Do We Understand About Asymmetric Effects of Monetary Policy?, Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC., 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Perlstein, L.: The Transformer, New York Times, 19th October, BR19, 2008.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Deweerdt, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Deweerdt, 2014; Weaver and Hillaire-Marcel, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Weaver and Hillaire-Marcel, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Fulde et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleClimate of the Past
AbbreviationClim. Past
ISSN (print)1814-9324
ISSN (online)1814-9332
Global and Planetary Change

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