How to format your references using the Climate of the Past citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Climate of the Past. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Liljas, A.: Biochemistry. Getting close to termination, Science, 322, 863–865, 2008.
A journal article with 2 authors
Parsons, J. and Wand, Y.: A question of class, Nature, 455, 1040–1041, 2008.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lecavelier des Etangs, A., Vidal-Madjar, A., and Désert, J.-M.: The origin of hydrogen around HD 209458b, Nature, 456, E1; discussion E1-2, 2008.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Klimanskaya, I., Chung, Y., Becker, S., Lu, S.-J., and Lanza, R.: Human embryonic stem cell lines derived from single blastomeres, Nature, 444, 481–485, 2006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hannon, L. and Clift, J.: General Hospital Care for People with Learning Disabilities, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, UK, 2010.
An edited book
Riley, M. A. and Chavan, M. A. (Eds.): Bacteriocins: Ecology and Evolution, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, X, 150 p. 15 illus., 4 illus. in color pp., 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Crespi Reghizzi, S., Breveglieri, L., and Morzenti, A.: Pushdown Automata and Parsing, in: Formal Languages and Compilation, edited by: Breveglieri, L. and Morzenti, A., Springer, London, 141–291, 2013.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Climate of the Past.

Blog post
Elephant Seals Shed Mercury Along With Their Fur:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: [Comments on Sequesterability of Railroad Supplemental Annuity Pension Fund], U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Belknap, B. M.: Fostering Resilience in Beginning Special Education Teachers, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, L. F.: New Meters Get a Mixed Review, New York Times, 26th November, 14LI11, 2006.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Liljas, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Liljas, 2008; Parsons and Wand, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Parsons and Wand, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Klimanskaya et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleClimate of the Past
AbbreviationClim. Past
ISSN (print)1814-9324
ISSN (online)1814-9332
Global and Planetary Change

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