How to format your references using the Climate of the Past citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Climate of the Past. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Finkbeiner, A.: JASON past, present, and future: the world’s most independent defence science advisers, Nature, 477, 397–399, 2011.
A journal article with 2 authors
Clements, D. H. and Sarama, J.: Early childhood mathematics intervention, Science, 333, 968–970, 2011.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaiser, U., Schwarz, A., and Wiesendanger, R.: Magnetic exchange force microscopy with atomic resolution, Nature, 446, 522–525, 2007.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Lesser, M. P., Mazel, C. H., Gorbunov, M. Y., and Falkowski, P. G.: Discovery of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria in corals, Science, 305, 997–1000, 2004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ezra, D., Collie, B., and Smith, M. X.: The Retirement Plan Solution, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2009.
An edited book
Mortveit, H. S.: An Introduction to Sequential Dynamical Systems, edited by: Reidys, C. M., Springer US, Boston, MA, XII, 248 p. 73 illus pp., 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Farage, M. A., Miller, K. W., and Maibach, H. I.: Degenerative Changes in Aging Skin, in: Textbook of Aging Skin, edited by: Farage, M. A., Miller, K. W., and Maibach, H. I., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 25–35, 2010.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Climate of the Past.

Blog post
Farmers Of The Future Will Utilize Drones, Robots And GPS:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Drug Abuse: Research on Treatment May Not Address Current Needs, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson, J. M.: Service learning: Providing the building blocks for a socially responsible nursing role, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, Minneapolis, MN, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S.: Purge Victims Remembered In Moscow Rite, New York Times, 30th October, A15, 2007.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Finkbeiner, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Finkbeiner, 2011; Clements and Sarama, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Clements and Sarama, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Lesser et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleClimate of the Past
AbbreviationClim. Past
ISSN (print)1814-9324
ISSN (online)1814-9332
Global and Planetary Change

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