How to format your references using the Climate of the Past citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Climate of the Past. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Williams, R.: Biomarkers: warning signs, Nature, 475(7355), S5-7, 2011.
A journal article with 2 authors
Benefit, B. R. and McCrossin, M. L.: EVOLUTION. A window into ape evolution, Science, 350(6260), 515–516, 2015.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moree, M., Ewart, S. and Diggs, C.: Strength in unity, Nature, 430(7002), 938–939, 2004.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Zhang, X., Qin, J., Xue, Y., Yu, P., Zhang, B., Wang, L. and Liu, R.: Effect of aspect ratio and surface defects on the photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanorods, Sci. Rep., 4, 4596, 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bagdonavičius, V., Kruopis, J. and Nikulin, M. S.: Non-parametric Tests for Censored Data, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ., 2011.
An edited book
Józefowska, J. and Weglarz, J., Eds.: Perspectives in Modern Project Scheduling, Springer US, Boston, MA., 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Singh Saharan, G., Mehta, N. and Meena, P. D.: Epidemiology and Forecasting, in Alternaria Diseases of Crucifers: Biology, Ecology and Disease Management, edited by N. Mehta and P. D. Meena, pp. 99–124, Springer, Singapore., 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Climate of the Past.

Blog post
Fang, J.: Tiny Parasite Infects Growing Honeybees, Not Just Adults, IFLScience [online] Available from: (Accessed 30 October 2018), 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Review of the Office of Education’s Basic Educational Opportunity Grant Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC., 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McKinney, R. W.: The Optimal Balance of Liberal Education and Career Readiness in the Context of the American Promise: A Critical Analysis of the American Association of Colleges and Universities Liberal Education and America’s Promise Challenge, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA., 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K.: World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Headscarves Banned From ID Photos, New York Times, 3rd August, A4, 2002.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Williams, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Benefit and McCrossin, 2015; Williams, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Benefit and McCrossin, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleClimate of the Past
AbbreviationClim. Past
ISSN (print)1814-9324
ISSN (online)1814-9332
Global and Planetary Change

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