How to format your references using the Climate of the Past citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Climate of the Past. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Allshire, R.: Molecular biology. RNAi and heterochromatin--a hushed-up affair, Science, 297, 1818–1819, 2002.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sankar, P. and Cho, M. K.: Genetics. Toward a new vocabulary of human genetic variation, Science, 298, 1337–1338, 2002.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rapp, R. P., Shimizu, N., and Norman, M. D.: Growth of early continental crust by partial melting of eclogite, Nature, 425, 605–609, 2003.
A journal article with 100 or more authors
Fadó, R., Moubarak, R. S., Miñano-Molina, A. J., Barneda-Zahonero, B., Valero, J., Saura, C. A., Moran, J., Comella, J. X., and Rodríguez-Álvarez, J.: X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein negatively regulates neuronal differentiation through interaction with cRAF and Trk, Sci. Rep., 3, 2397, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dickeson, R. C.: Prioritizing Academic Programs and Services, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, USA, 2010.
An edited book
Karplus, V. J.: Agricultural Biotechnology in China: Origins and Prospects, edited by: Deng, X. W., Springer, New York, NY, XXIII, 165 p pp., 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Ryan, P. Y. A.: The Computer Ate My Vote, in: Formal Methods: State of the Art and New Directions, edited by: Boca, P., Bowen, J. P., and Siddiqi, J., Springer, London, 147–184, 2010.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Climate of the Past.

Blog post
Northern Lights Shine Above Moosehead Lake, Maine, In Five-Hour Time-Lapse:, last access: 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: FAA Budget: Key Issues Need to Be Addressed, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Subbarao, S.: An 8-PSK super regenerative receiver: Design and simulation, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M. D., Cooper, H., and Schmitt, E.: Trump Warns Assad After Reports of Possible Gas Preparations, New York Times, 27th June, A11, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Allshire, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Allshire, 2002; Sankar and Cho, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sankar and Cho, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Fadó et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleClimate of the Past
AbbreviationClim. Past
ISSN (print)1814-9324
ISSN (online)1814-9332
Global and Planetary Change

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