How to format your references using the Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gitler, Aaron D. 2011. “Neuroscience. Another Reason to Exercise.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 334 (6056): 606–607.
A journal article with 2 authors
Haushofer, Johannes, and Ernst Fehr. 2014. “On the Psychology of Poverty.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 344 (6186): 862–867.
A journal article with 3 authors
D’Hondt, Steven, Scott Rutherford, and Arthur J. Spivack. 2002. “Metabolic Activity of Subsurface Life in Deep-Sea Sediments.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 295 (5562): 2067–2070.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Aragoneses, Andrés, Sandro Perrone, Taciano Sorrentino, M. C. Torrent, and Cristina Masoller. 2014. “Unveiling the Complex Organization of Recurrent Patterns in Spiking Dynamical Systems.” Scientific Reports 4 (April): 4696.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sullivan, Dennis M. 2012. Quantum Mechanics for Electrical Engineers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sumi, Akimasa, Kensuke Fukushi, and Ai Hiramatsu, eds. 2010. Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies for Climate Change. Tokyo: Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Kubicek, Jan, Marek Penhaker, Karolina Pavelova, Ali Selamat, Radovan Hudak, and Jaroslav Majernik. 2015. “Segmentation of MRI Data to Extract the Blood Vessels Based on Fuzzy Thresholding.” In New Trends in Intelligent Information and Database Systems, edited by Dariusz Barbucha, Ngoc Thanh Nguyen, and John Batubara, 43–52. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2015. “How Silver Ants Survive One of the Hottest Environments on Earth.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. Government Civil Aircraft: Longstanding Management Problems. T-GGD-92-44. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mylonas, Ariana. 2014. “‘Women Are the Pillars of the Family’: Athenian Women’s Survival Strategies during Economic Crisis.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz, John. 2016. “At Exxon, Nominee Steered Company’s ‘Evolution’ on Climate.” New York Times, December 29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gitler 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Gitler 2011; Haushofer and Fehr 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Haushofer and Fehr 2014)
  • Three authors: (D’Hondt, Rutherford, and Spivack 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Aragoneses et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEmotional and Behavioural Difficulties
AbbreviationEmot. Behav. Diffic.
ISSN (print)1363-2752
ISSN (online)1741-2692
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology
Developmental and Educational Psychology

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