How to format your references using the Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wakeley, John. 2008. “Complex Speciation of Humans and Chimpanzees.” Nature 452 (7184): E3-4; discussion E4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Steele, E. J., and R. V. Blanden. 2000. “Lamarck and Antibody Genes.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 288 (5475): 2318d–2319d.
A journal article with 3 authors
Salje, Jeanne, Benoît Zuber, and Jan Löwe. 2009. “Electron Cryomicroscopy of E. Coli Reveals Filament Bundles Involved in Plasmid DNA Segregation.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 323 (5913): 509–512.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Yu, Bomina, William C. Edstrom, Jordi Benach, Yoshitomo Hamuro, Patricia C. Weber, Brian R. Gibney, and John F. Hunt. 2006. “Crystal Structures of Catalytic Complexes of the Oxidative DNA/RNA Repair Enzyme AlkB.” Nature 439 (7078): 879–884.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shamah, Shani. 2004. A Currency Options Primer. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Grote, Ulrike, Arnab K. Basu, and Nancy H. Chau, eds. 2007. New Frontiers in Environmental and Social Labeling. Sustainability and Innovation. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD.
A chapter in an edited book
Thomaidis, Nikos S. 2012. “A Soft Computing Approach to Enhanced Indexation.” In Natural Computing in Computational Finance: Volume 4, edited by Anthony Brabazon, Michael O’Neill, and Dietmar Maringer, 61–77. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2016. “Sexual Harassment Compromises Graduate Students’ Safety.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2001. Executive Guide: Best Practices in Achieving Consistent, Accurate Physical Counts of Inventory and Related Property. GAO-01-763G. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zinda, Elizabeth Selena. 2017. “American Cerberus: Pit Bulls and Psyche in the United States.” Doctoral dissertation, Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Christopher. 2013. “A Holiday Gift Guide To a Library of Books With Local Connections.” New York Times, December 8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wakeley 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Wakeley 2008; Steele and Blanden 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Steele and Blanden 2000)
  • Three authors: (Salje, Zuber, and Löwe 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Yu et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEmotional and Behavioural Difficulties
AbbreviationEmot. Behav. Diffic.
ISSN (print)1363-2752
ISSN (online)1741-2692
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology
Developmental and Educational Psychology

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