How to format your references using the Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldberg, Alfred L. 2003. “Protein Degradation and Protection against Misfolded or Damaged Proteins.” Nature 426 (6968): 895–899.
A journal article with 2 authors
Moussion, Christine, and Jean-Philippe Girard. 2011. “Dendritic Cells Control Lymphocyte Entry to Lymph Nodes through High Endothelial Venules.” Nature 479 (7374): 542–546.
A journal article with 3 authors
Conway, Stephen L., Troy Shinbrot, and Benjamin J. Glasser. 2004. “A Taylor Vortex Analogy in Granular Flows.” Nature 431 (7007): 433–437.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ajayan, P. M., J. M. Nugent, R. W. Siegel, B. Wei, and P. Kohler-Redlich. 2000. “Growth of Carbon Micro-Trees.” Nature 404 (6775): 243.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rowe, W. Brian. 2010. Modern Grinding Techniques. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Barrios, Roberto, and Abida K. Haque, eds. 2013. Parasitic Diseases of the Lungs. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ofak, Lana. 2015. “Application of the Aarhus Convention in Southeast Europe.” In Judicial Application of International Law in Southeast Europe, edited by Siniša Rodin and Tamara Perišin, 43–62. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “European Commission Opposes Petition To End Animal Research.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. Air Traffic Control: FAA’s Interim Actions to Reduce Near Mid-Air Collisions. RCED-89-149. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chaves, Juan Scott. 2009. “Novel Approach for the Creation of Thin Films and Interconnects Using Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes Inkjet Technology and Bacteria.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, A. L., and James C. McKINLEY Jr. 2017. “Bullet in Bronx Takes a Detour, Turning Deadly.” New York Times, January 19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goldberg 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Goldberg 2003; Moussion and Girard 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Moussion and Girard 2011)
  • Three authors: (Conway, Shinbrot, and Glasser 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Ajayan et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleEmotional and Behavioural Difficulties
AbbreviationEmot. Behav. Diffic.
ISSN (print)1363-2752
ISSN (online)1741-2692
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology
Developmental and Educational Psychology

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