How to format your references using the Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Whitelegge, Julian. 2011. “Structural Biology. Up Close with Membrane Lipid-Protein Complexes.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 334 (6054): 320–321.
A journal article with 2 authors
Badcock, Christopher, and Bernard Crespi. 2008. “Battle of the Sexes May Set the Brain.” Nature 454 (7208): 1054–1055.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kurth, Isabel, Roxana E. Georgescu, and Mike E. O’Donnell. 2013. “A Solution to Release Twisted DNA during Chromosome Replication by Coupled DNA Polymerases.” Nature 496 (7443): 119–122.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Chang, Shou-Yi, Chen-En Li, Yi-Chung Huang, Hsun-Feng Hsu, Jien-Wei Yeh, and Su-Jien Lin. 2014. “Structural and Thermodynamic Factors of Suppressed Interdiffusion Kinetics in Multi-Component High-Entropy Materials.” Scientific Reports 4 (February): 4162.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Benitez, Mara, Jill Davidson, and Laura Flaxman. 2009. Small Schools, Big Ideas. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass.
An edited book
King, Alan J. 2012. Modeling with Stochastic Programming. Edited by Stein W. Wallace. Springer Series in Operations Research and Financial Engineering. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Pettit, Christopher J., and Ray Wyatt. 2009. “A Planning Support System Toolkit Approach for Formulating and Evaluating Land-Use Change Scenarios.” In Planning Support Systems Best Practice and New Methods, edited by Stan Geertman and John Stillwell, 69–90. The GeoJournal Library. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties.

Blog post
Evans, Katy. 2016. “A Peek Into Women’s Bedrooms In 2016, According To A Popular Sex-Advice App.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2005. Student Financial Aid: Need Determination Could Be Enhanced through Improvements in Education’s Estimate of Applicants’ State Tax Payments. GAO-05-105. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yasami, Saeid. 2015. “Ultra-Low Power RFIC for Space/Medical/Mobile Applications.” Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, Michael D., and Peter Baker. 2017. “Saudis Welcome Trump’s Rebuff Of Obama’s Views.” New York Times, May 20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Whitelegge 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Whitelegge 2011; Badcock and Crespi 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Badcock and Crespi 2008)
  • Three authors: (Kurth, Georgescu, and O’Donnell 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Chang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEmotional and Behavioural Difficulties
AbbreviationEmot. Behav. Diffic.
ISSN (print)1363-2752
ISSN (online)1741-2692
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology
Developmental and Educational Psychology

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