How to format your references using the Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sanov, Andrei. 2007. “Chemistry. Coherence and Symmetry Breaking at the Molecular Level.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 315 (5812): 610–611.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hoefel, Fernanda, and Steve Elgar. 2003. “Wave-Induced Sediment Transport and Sandbar Migration.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 299 (5614): 1885–1887.
A journal article with 3 authors
Matter, Nathalie, Peter Herrlich, and Harald König. 2002. “Signal-Dependent Regulation of Splicing via Phosphorylation of Sam68.” Nature 420 (6916): 691–695.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Parmentier, Eric, Orphal Colleye, Michael L. Fine, Bruno Frédérich, Pierre Vandewalle, and Anthony Herrel. 2007. “Sound Production in the Clownfish Amphiprion Clarkii.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 316 (5827): 1006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vaseghi, Saeed V. 2001. Advanced Digital Signal Processing and Noise Reduction. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Niaz, Mansoor. 2011. Nature of Science in General Chemistry Textbooks. Edited by Arelys Maza. Vol. 2. SpringerBriefs in Education. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Pelton, Joseph N., and Indu B. Singh. 2015. “Cybersecurity for Smart Phones, Mobile Apps, and ‘The Cloud.’” In Digital Defense: A Cybersecurity Primer, edited by Indu B. Singh, 83–101. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2016. “The CEO Of That EpiPen Price Gouging Company Was Just Caught Lying To Congress.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. School-Age Children: Poverty and Diversity Challenge Schools Nationwide. T-HEHS-94-125. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nunn, Travis N. 2014. “A Puer–Senex Archetypal Model of the Therapeutic Relationship.” Doctoral dissertation, Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kimmelman, Michael. 2017. “Brexit Clouds New Subway’s Promise.” New York Times, July 31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sanov 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Sanov 2007; Hoefel and Elgar 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hoefel and Elgar 2003)
  • Three authors: (Matter, Herrlich, and König 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Parmentier et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEmotional and Behavioural Difficulties
AbbreviationEmot. Behav. Diffic.
ISSN (print)1363-2752
ISSN (online)1741-2692
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology
Developmental and Educational Psychology

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