How to format your references using the Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pirandola, Stefano. 2014. “Quantum Discord as a Resource for Quantum Cryptography.” Scientific Reports 4 (November): 6956.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cruz, Maria, and Robert Coontz. 2013. “Exoplanets. Alien Worlds Galore. Introduction.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 340 (6132): 565.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shim, S. H., T. S. Duffy, and G. Shen. 2001. “Stability and Structure of MgSiO3 Perovskite to 2300-Kilometer Depth in Earth’s Mantle.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 293 (5539): 2437–2440.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Panchal, Vishal, Arseniy Lartsev, Alessandra Manzin, Rositza Yakimova, Alexander Tzalenchuk, and Olga Kazakova. 2014. “Visualisation of Edge Effects in Side-Gated Graphene Nanodevices.” Scientific Reports 4 (July): 5881.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Silvia, Tony, and Terry Anzur. 2011. Power Performance. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Mann, Andi. 2013. The Innovative CIO: How IT Leaders Can Drive Business Transformation. Edited by George Watt and Peter Matthews. Berkeley, CA: Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhao, Zhe, Tao Liu, Xiaoyun Hou, Bofang Li, and Xiaoyong Du. 2016. “Distributed Text Representation with Weighting Scheme Guidance for Sentiment Analysis.” In Web Technologies and Applications: 18th Asia-Pacific Web Conference, APWeb 2016, Suzhou, China, September 23-25, 2016. Proceedings, Part I, edited by Feifei Li, Kyuseok Shim, Kai Zheng, and Guanfeng Liu, 41–52. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2015. “It’s Been 20 Years Since We Found The First ‘True’ Planet Outside Our Solar System.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. Lost in Space? 146027. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Louviere, Elizabeth C. 2017. “Bonds Behind Bars: The Impact of Program Participation on Interpersonal Inmate Connections in Louisiana State Penitentiary.” Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, James. 2017. “Mets’ Bullpen Undermines An Outburst Of Offense.” New York Times, May 28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pirandola 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Pirandola 2014; Cruz and Coontz 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cruz and Coontz 2013)
  • Three authors: (Shim, Duffy, and Shen 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Panchal et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEmotional and Behavioural Difficulties
AbbreviationEmot. Behav. Diffic.
ISSN (print)1363-2752
ISSN (online)1741-2692
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology
Developmental and Educational Psychology

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