How to format your references using the Emission Control Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emission Control Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fauci, A.S.: Race against time. Nature. 435, 423–424 (2005)
A journal article with 2 authors
Sun, J.C., Bevan, M.J.: Defective CD8 T cell memory following acute infection without CD4 T cell help. Science. 300, 339–342 (2003)
A journal article with 3 authors
Mayadas, A.F., Bourne, J., Bacsich, P.: Online education today. Science. 323, 85–89 (2009)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Joly, D., Pellejà, L., Narbey, S., Oswald, F., Chiron, J., Clifford, J.N., Palomares, E., Demadrille, R.: A robust organic dye for dye sensitized solar cells based on iodine/iodide electrolytes combining high efficiency and outstanding stability. Sci. Rep. 4, 4033 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rombach, G.: Spannbetonbau. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, Germany (2010)
An edited book
Boulicaut, J.-F., Raedt, L.D., Mannila, H. eds: Constraint-Based Mining and Inductive Databases: European Workshop on Inductive Databases and Constraint Based Mining, Hinterzarten, Germany, March 11-13, 2004, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2006)
A chapter in an edited book
Villani, M., Serra, R.: Attractors Perturbations in Biological Modelling: Avalanches and Cellular Differentiation. In: Cagnoni, S., Mirolli, M., and Villani, M. (eds.) Evolution, Complexity and Artificial Life. pp. 59–76. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emission Control Science and Technology.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: We Care About Dementia, But We Often Don’t Know What Causes It,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Office of Education’s Efforts To Recover Overpayments from Denver Indian Center. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1978)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wang, T.: Trajectory Similarity Based Prediction for Remaining Useful Life Estimation, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K.: Is It a Fight Over Fast Food Or the People Who Eat It?, (2002)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEmission Control Science and Technology
AbbreviationEmission Contr. Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)2199-3629
ISSN (online)2199-3637

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