How to format your references using the Emission Control Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emission Control Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sachs, J.D.: Seeking a global solution. Nature. 430, 725–726 (2004)
A journal article with 2 authors
Rice, W.R., Chippindale, A.K.: Sexual recombination and the power of natural selection. Science. 294, 555–559 (2001)
A journal article with 3 authors
Didham, R.K., Ewers, R.M., Gemmell, N.J.: Comment on “Avian extinction and mammalian introductions on oceanic islands.” Science. 307, 1412; author reply 1412 (2005)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Takeda, S., Gapper, C., Kaya, H., Bell, E., Kuchitsu, K., Dolan, L.: Local positive feedback regulation determines cell shape in root hair cells. Science. 319, 1241–1244 (2008)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paladino, B.: Corporate Performance Management Best Practices. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2013)
An edited book
Vogl, T.J., Reith, W., Rummeny, E.J. eds: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Brion, M.: On Automorphisms and Endomorphisms of Projective Varieties. In: Cheltsov, I., Ciliberto, C., Flenner, H., McKernan, J., Prokhorov, Y.G., and Zaidenberg, M. (eds.) Automorphisms in Birational and Affine Geometry: Levico Terme, Italy, October 2012. pp. 59–81. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emission Control Science and Technology.

Blog post
Davis, J.: Astonishing 99-Million-Year-Old Bird Wings Found Preserved In Amber,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: USDA Information Management: Extensive Improvements Needed in Managing Information Technology Investments. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1997)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Graves, I.S.: Positioning of Fifth Grade Students in Small-Group Settings: Naming Participation in Discussion-Based Mathematics, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L.: Justices Take Up On-Air Vulgarity Again, (2008)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEmission Control Science and Technology
AbbreviationEmission Contr. Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)2199-3629
ISSN (online)2199-3637

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