How to format your references using the Emission Control Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emission Control Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sekercioglu, C.H.: Ecology. Functional extinctions of bird pollinators cause plant declines. Science. 331, 1019–1020 (2011)
A journal article with 2 authors
Fainman, Y., Porter, G.: Applied physics. Directing data center traffic. Science. 342, 202–203 (2013)
A journal article with 3 authors
Bongard, J., Zykov, V., Lipson, H.: Resilient machines through continuous self-modeling. Science. 314, 1118–1121 (2006)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
He, Y.-F., Li, B.-Z., Li, Z., Liu, P., Wang, Y., Tang, Q., Ding, J., Jia, Y., Chen, Z., Li, L., Sun, Y., Li, X., Dai, Q., Song, C.-X., Zhang, K., He, C., Xu, G.-L.: Tet-mediated formation of 5-carboxylcytosine and its excision by TDG in mammalian DNA. Science. 333, 1303–1307 (2011)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Söchting, I.: Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, UK (2014)
An edited book
Dart, J., Wagg, S. eds: Sport, Protest and Globalisation: Stopping Play. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Ning, L., Setsompop, K., Michailovich, O., Makris, N., Westin, C.-F., Rathi, Y.: A Compressed-Sensing Approach for Super-Resolution Reconstruction of Diffusion MRI. In: Ourselin, S., Alexander, D.C., Westin, C.-F., and Cardoso, M.J. (eds.) Information Processing in Medical Imaging: 24th International Conference, IPMI 2015, Sabhal Mor Ostaig, Isle of Skye, UK, June 28 - July 3, 2015, Proceedings. pp. 57–68. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emission Control Science and Technology.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: Rampaging Elephant Smashes House, Then Rescues Crying Baby,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Difficulties of the Neighborhood Youth Corps In-School Program and Its Management Problems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1973)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Khatib, E.: A phenomenological study on the potential impact of implementing information systems in midsize corporations, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M.: THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; CLINTON IS LEERY OF PREMATURE JOY, (1992)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEmission Control Science and Technology
AbbreviationEmission Contr. Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)2199-3629
ISSN (online)2199-3637

Other styles