How to format your references using the Emission Control Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emission Control Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wagner, M.: Microbiology: Conductive consortia. Nature. 526, 513–514 (2015)
A journal article with 2 authors
Strasser, B.J., Dubochet, J.: Obituary: Eduard Kellenberger (1920-2004). Nature. 433, 817 (2005)
A journal article with 3 authors
Sanders, T.A., Llagostera, E., Barna, M.: Specialized filopodia direct long-range transport of SHH during vertebrate tissue patterning. Nature. 497, 628–632 (2013)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Frank, C.G., Sanyal, S., Rush, J.S., Waechter, C.J., Menon, A.K.: Does Rft1 flip an N-glycan lipid precursor? Nature. 454, E3-4; discussion E4-5 (2008)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kerzner, H.: Project Management 2.0. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ (2015)
An edited book
Boykov, Y., Kahl, F., Lempitsky, V., Schmidt, F.R. eds: Energy Minimization Methods in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition: 8th International Conference, EMMCVPR 2011, St. Petersburg, Russia, July 25-27, 2011. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2011)
A chapter in an edited book
Vacano, B. von, Motzkus, M.: Photonic Integration Enables Single-Beam Nonlinear Spectroscopy for Microscopy and Microanalytics. In: Hall, T.J., Gaponenko, S.V., and Paredes, S.A. (eds.) Extreme Photonics & Applications. pp. 57–73. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2010)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emission Control Science and Technology.

Blog post
Andrews, R.: Cryovolcanoes Discovered On Dwarf Planet Ceres,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Consistent Criteria Are Needed To Assess Small-Business Innovation Initiatives. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1981)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Safi Samghabadi, P.: Kinematic analysis and control design of a retractable wheel mechanism using optimal control theory, (2013)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kaplan, T., Pilon, M.: Attorney General Turns Focus to New York’s Pets, (2013)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEmission Control Science and Technology
AbbreviationEmission Contr. Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)2199-3629
ISSN (online)2199-3637

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