How to format your references using the Emerging Contaminants citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emerging Contaminants. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A.M. Sessler, Setbacks don’t dampen the energy of US physics, Nature. 405 (2000) 733.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.J. Giovannoni, K.L. Vergin, Seasonality in ocean microbial communities, Science. 335 (2012) 671–676.
A journal article with 3 authors
R.B. Deal, J.G. Henikoff, S. Henikoff, Genome-wide kinetics of nucleosome turnover determined by metabolic labeling of histones, Science. 328 (2010) 1161–1164.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R.A. Dick, K.K. Zadrozny, C. Xu, F.K.M. Schur, T.D. Lyddon, C.L. Ricana, J.M. Wagner, J.R. Perilla, B.K. Ganser-Pornillos, M.C. Johnson, O. Pornillos, V.M. Vogt, Inositol phosphates are assembly co-factors for HIV-1, Nature. 560 (2018) 509–512.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W. Horton, E-Learning by Design, Pfeiffer, San Francisco, CA, USA, 2011.
An edited book
L. Capogna, An Introduction to the Heisenberg Group and the Sub-Riemannian Isoperimetric Problem, Birkhäuser, Basel, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Raschke, P. Elsner, Skin Aging: A Brief Summary of Characteristic Changes, in: M.A. Farage, K.W. Miller, H.I. Maibach (Eds.), Textbook of Aging Skin, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010: pp. 37–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emerging Contaminants.

Blog post
E. Andrew, The Riddle Behind Zebra Stripes, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Electronic Disability Claims Processing: SSA Needs to Address Risks Associated with Its Accelerated Systems Development Strategy, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.J. Miramontes, Examining eye fixation patterns during the Situation Present Assessment Method (SPAM) under varying levels of workload, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J.C. McKINLEY Jr, 2nd Etan Patz Jury Knew Members of First Jury Were Watching, Defense Says, New York Times. (2017) A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEmerging Contaminants
AbbreviationEmerg. Contam.
ISSN (print)2405-6650

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