How to format your references using the Emerging Contaminants citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emerging Contaminants. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Fratzl, Applied physics: The virtues of tiling, Nature. 516 (2014) 178–179.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.R. McNeill, V. Winiwarter, Breaking the sod: humankind, history, and soil, Science. 304 (2004) 1627–1629.
A journal article with 3 authors
S.E. Childers, S. Ciufo, D.R. Lovley, Geobacter metallireducens accesses insoluble Fe(III) oxide by chemotaxis, Nature. 416 (2002) 767–769.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A.N. Grigorenko, A.K. Geim, H.F. Gleeson, Y. Zhang, A.A. Firsov, I.Y. Khrushchev, J. Petrovic, Nanofabricated media with negative permeability at visible frequencies, Nature. 438 (2005) 335–338.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
The Chartered Institute of Building, Code of Practice for Project Management for Construction and Development, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK, 2008.
An edited book
D. Cheng, Analysis and Control of Boolean Networks: A Semi-tensor Product Approach, Springer, London, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
L.E. Hombach, G. Walther, Evaluation of CO2 Abatement Measures for (Bio-) Fuel Production, in: J. Dethloff, H.-D. Haasis, H. Kopfer, H. Kotzab, J. Schönberger (Eds.), Logistics Management: Products, Actors, Technology - Proceedings of the German Academic Association for Business Research, Bremen, 2013, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 39–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emerging Contaminants.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Undersea Landslide Unleashed Gigantic Ancient Tsunami, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, National Airspace System: Progress and Ongoing Challenges for the Air Traffic Organization, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.B. Manalo, Ascend Physical Therapy: A Private Practice Clinic for the Next Level, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Kishkovsky, From a Bitter War Defeat Comes Russia’s Latest Blockbuster Action Movie, New York Times. (2005) B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEmerging Contaminants
AbbreviationEmerg. Contam.
ISSN (print)2405-6650

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