How to format your references using the International Journal for Equity in Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal for Equity in Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Lynch C. Big data: How do your data grow? Nature. 2008;455:28–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Beg AA, Scheiffele P. Neuroscience. SUMO wrestles the synapse. Science. 2006;311:962–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Scaillet B, Pichavant M, Cioni R. Upward migration of Vesuvius magma chamber over the past 20,000 years. Nature. 2008;455:216–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Fu Z-G, Zhang P, Chen M, Wang Z, Zheng F-W, Lin H-Q. Anisotropic Fabry-Pérot resonant states confined within nano-steps on the topological insulator surface. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5544.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Sillar KT, Picton LD, Heitler WJ. The Neuroethology of Predation and Escape. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1. Blanc-Talon J, Philips W, Popescu D, Scheunders P, editors. Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems: 9th International Conference, ACIVS 2007, Delft, The Netherlands, August 28-31, 2007. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Mazouz S, Malki OMC, Nfaoui EH. Canonical Document for Medical Data Exchange. In: Yin X, Ho K, Zeng D, Aickelin U, Zhou R, Wang H, editors. Health Information Science: 4th International Conference, HIS 2015, Melbourne, Australia, May 28-30, 2015, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 37–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal for Equity in Health.

Blog post
1. Davis J. Early Mammals May Have Gained Night Vision By Losing Ability To See Ultraviolet [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. School Safety: Promising Initiatives for Addressing School Violence. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 Apr. Report No.: HEHS-95-106.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Swenson MD. Second generation Latinos and the perceived barriers to college enrollment [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Walsh MW. Puerto Rico Turmoil Sinks Sewer Bond. New York Times. 2015 Aug 26;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal for Equity in Health
AbbreviationInt. J. Equity Health
ISSN (online)1475-9276
ScopeHealth Policy
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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