How to format your references using the Elementa citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Elementa. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gravitz L. 2012. Vector control: The last bite. Nature 484(7395): S26-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sloan PA, Palmer RE. 2005. Two-electron dissociation of single molecules by atomic manipulation at room temperature. Nature 434(7031): 367–371.
A journal article with 3 authors
Elioff MS, Valentini JJ, Chandler DW. 2003. Subkelvin cooling NO molecules via “billiard-like” collisions with argon. Science 302(5652): 1940–1943.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Burch JL, Goldstein J, Lewis WS, Young DT, Coates AJ, Dougherty MK, André N. 2007. Tethys and Dione as sources of outward-flowing plasma in Saturn’s magnetosphere. Nature 447(7146): 833–835.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rooney T. 2010. IP Address Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gervasi O, Murgante B, Misra S, Rocha AMAC, Torre CM, Taniar D, Apduhan BO, Stankova E, Wang S, editors. 2016. Computational Science and Its Applications – ICCSA 2016: 16th International Conference, Beijing, China, July 4-7, 2016, Proceedings, Part II. Cham: Springer International Publishing. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Vol. 9787).
A chapter in an edited book
Ščančar J, Heath E, Zuliani T, Horvat M, Kotnik J, Perko S, Milačič R. 2015. Elements and Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Sediments of the Sava River. In: Milačič R, Ščančar J, Paunović M, editors. The Sava River. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. p. 95–121.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Elementa.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2014 Dec 19. Amputee Simultaneously Controls Two Robotic Prosthetic Limbs With His Thoughts. IFLScience. IFLScience. Available at Accessed 2018 Oct 30.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2011. Federal Chief Information Officers: Opportunities Exist to Improve Role in Information Technology Management. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Report No.: GAO-11-634.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Berkowitz ES. 2013. Some novel phenomena at high density [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Craig S, Pilon M. 2013 Feb 11. Linked to Competitors, Judge Asserts Integrity. New York Times: D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gravitz, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Sloan and Palmer, 2005; Gravitz, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sloan and Palmer, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Burch et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleElementa
AbbreviationElementa (Wash., DC)
ISSN (online)2325-1026
ScopeAtmospheric Science
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Environmental Engineering

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