How to format your references using the Astroparticle Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Astroparticle Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
I.F. Tannock, Cancer: Resistance through repopulation, Nature. 517 (2015) 152–153.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Dubcovsky, J. Dvorak, Genome plasticity a key factor in the success of polyploid wheat under domestication, Science. 316 (2007) 1862–1866.
A journal article with 3 authors
C.M. O’D Alexander, A.P. Boss, R.W. Carlson, The early evolution of the inner solar system: a meteoritic perspective, Science. 293 (2001) 64–68.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Schoch, F. Deák, A. Königstorfer, M. Mozhayeva, Y. Sara, T.C. Südhof, E.T. Kavalali, SNARE function analyzed in synaptobrevin/VAMP knockout mice, Science. 294 (2001) 1117–1122.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W. Kölle, Wasseranalysen - richtig beurteilt, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2017.
An edited book
R.-S. Chang, L.C. Jain, S.-L. Peng, eds., Advances in Intelligent Systems and Applications - Volume 1: Proceedings of the International Computer Symposium ICS 2012 Held at Hualien, Taiwan, December 12–14, 2012, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Martellini, S. Meulenbelt, K. Paturej, Cyber Security for Chemical Plants, in: M. Martellini (Ed.), Cyber Security: Deterrence and IT Protection for Critical Infrastructures, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2013: pp. 37–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Astroparticle Physics.

Blog post
H. Bedell-Pearce, Check Out The Amazing Behavior Of These Fish As They Try To Guard Against Predators, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Corporation for Public Broadcasting’s Oversight of National Public Radio, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. Kong, Formal Methods Applied to the Specification of an Active Network Node, Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati, 2001.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Lee, Bridal Hunger Games, New York Times. (2012) ST14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAstroparticle Physics
AbbreviationAstropart. Phys.
ISSN (print)0927-6505
ScopeAstronomy and Astrophysics

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