How to format your references using the Astroparticle Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Astroparticle Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Servick, Top heart lab comes under fire, Science. 345 (2014) 254.
A journal article with 2 authors
N. Demaurex, D. Poburko, Cell biology. A revolving door for calcium, Science. 326 (2009) 57–58.
A journal article with 3 authors
K. Koh, X. Zheng, A. Sehgal, JETLAG resets the Drosophila circadian clock by promoting light-induced degradation of TIMELESS, Science. 312 (2006) 1809–1812.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
B.-L. Wang, R. Wang, R.J. Liu, X.H. Lu, J. Zhao, Z.-Y. Li, Origin of shape resonance in second-harmonic generation from metallic nanohole arrays, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2358.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B.J. Hoskins, I.N. James, Fluid Dynamics of the Midlatitude Atmosphere, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, 2014.
An edited book
P. Heitjans, J. Kärger, eds., Diffusion in Condensed Matter: Methods, Materials, Models, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
X. Li, X.-H. Xu, F. Zou, H. Du, P. Wan, Y. Wang, W. Wu, A PTAS for Node-Weighted Steiner Tree in Unit Disk Graphs, in: D.-Z. Du, X. Hu, P.M. Pardalos (Eds.), Combinatorial Optimization and Applications: Third International Conference, COCOA 2009, Huangshan, China, June 10-12, 2009. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009: pp. 36–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Astroparticle Physics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, India’s Mangalyaan Successfully Enters Mars Orbit, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 21st Century Challenges: Reexamining the Base of the Federal Government, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Shakya, Planter Boxes and Rain Gardens for Urban Stormwater Management: Performance of Extended Field Application, Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Feeney, Bakery That Sells and Gives, New York Times. (2008) NJ12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAstroparticle Physics
AbbreviationAstropart. Phys.
ISSN (print)0927-6505
ScopeAstronomy and Astrophysics

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