How to format your references using the Eighteenth-Century Life citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Eighteenth-Century Life. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Frommer, Wolf B. “Biochemistry. CO2mmon Sense.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 327, no. 5963 (January 15, 2010): 275–76.
A journal article with 2 authors
Legler, B., and G. Moore. “East German Academics Faced Unfair Hurdles.” Nature 403, no. 6766 (January 13, 2000): 130.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jakobsen, Lasse, John M. Ratcliffe, and Annemarie Surlykke. “Convergent Acoustic Field of View in Echolocating Bats.” Nature 493, no. 7430 (January 3, 2013): 93–96.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Sun, Pengzhan, Feng Zheng, Kunlin Wang, Minlin Zhong, Dehai Wu, and Hongwei Zhu. “Electro- and Magneto-Modulated Ion Transport through Graphene Oxide Membranes.” Scientific Reports 4 (October 28, 2014): 6798.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Koepsell, David. Who Owns You? Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2015.
An edited book
Rigden, Daniel John, ed. From Protein Structure to Function with Bioinformatics. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Kniesel, Günter. “Detection and Resolution of Weaving Interactions.” In Transactions on Aspect-Oriented Software Development V, edited by Awais Rashid and Harold Ossher, 135–86. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Eighteenth-Century Life.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. “SpaceX Makes History As It Launches And Lands A Reusable Rocket For The First Time.” IFLScience. IFLScience, March 31, 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Federal Motor Vehicles: Private and State Practices Can Improve Fleet Management.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, December 29, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Strickland, Kelli C. “A Historical Analysis of the AIDS Epidemic in South Africa.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, Susan. “You Can Just Put That Cookie Cutter Away.” New York Times, September 20, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleEighteenth-Century Life
AbbreviationEighteenth Century Life
ISSN (print)0098-2601
ISSN (online)1086-3192
Literature and Literary Theory
Visual Arts and Performing Arts
Cultural Studies

Other styles