How to format your references using the Eighteenth-Century Life citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Eighteenth-Century Life. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kröger, Nils. “Biochemistry. The Molecular Basis of Nacre Formation.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 325, no. 5946 (September 11, 2009): 1351–52.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stark, John M., and Stephen C. Hart. “Nitrogen Storage: UV-B Radiation and Soil Microbial Communities.” Nature 423, no. 6936 (May 8, 2003): 137–38; discussion 138.
A journal article with 3 authors
Clark, Tyson A., Charles W. Sugnet, and Manuel Ares Jr. “Genomewide Analysis of MRNA Processing in Yeast Using Splicing-Specific Microarrays.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296, no. 5569 (May 3, 2002): 907–10.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Gao, Dingcheng, Daniel J. Nolan, Albert S. Mellick, Kathryn Bambino, Kevin McDonnell, and Vivek Mittal. “Endothelial Progenitor Cells Control the Angiogenic Switch in Mouse Lung Metastasis.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 319, no. 5860 (January 11, 2008): 195–98.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Duffy, Daniel J. Finite Difference Methods in Financial Engineering. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2006.
An edited book
Ng, Chi-Hung Clarence, Robert Fox, and Michiko Nakano, eds. Reforming Learning and Teaching in Asia-Pacific Universities: Influences of Globalised Processes in Japan, Hong Kong and Australia. Vol. 33. Education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Issues, Concerns and Prospects. Singapore: Springer, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Bub, Linda, Marie Boltz, Aaron Malsch, and Kathleen Fletcher. “The NICHE Program to Prepare the Workforce to Address the Needs of Older Patients.” In Geriatrics Models of Care: Bringing “Best Practice” to an Aging America, edited by Michael L. Malone, Elizabeth A. Capezuti, and Robert M. Palmer, 57–70. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Eighteenth-Century Life.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. “Scientist Ejected From Classical Concert For Crowdsurfing.” IFLScience. IFLScience, June 23, 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Depository Institutions: Contracting Practices With Data Processing Servicers.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, February 5, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bryant, Terrence Lamar. “The Influence of High School Preparation on Black Male Students’ Ability to Succeed at the Post-Secondary Level.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. “Someone Ought To Make a Movie.” New York Times, October 30, 2011.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleEighteenth-Century Life
AbbreviationEighteenth Century Life
ISSN (print)0098-2601
ISSN (online)1086-3192
Literature and Literary Theory
Visual Arts and Performing Arts
Cultural Studies

Other styles