How to format your references using the Eighteenth-Century Life citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Eighteenth-Century Life. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kirshner, Robert P. “Throwing Light on Dark Energy.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 300, no. 5627 (June 20, 2003): 1914–18.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhang, Y., and Y. Xiong. “A P53 Amino-Terminal Nuclear Export Signal Inhibited by DNA Damage-Induced Phosphorylation.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 292, no. 5523 (June 8, 2001): 1910–15.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cho, Mildred K., Glenn McGee, and David Magnus. “Research Conduct. Lessons of the Stem Cell Scandal.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 311, no. 5761 (February 3, 2006): 614–15.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Schattschneider, P., S. Rubino, C. Hébert, J. Rusz, J. Kunes, P. Novák, E. Carlino, M. Fabrizioli, G. Panaccione, and G. Rossi. “Detection of Magnetic Circular Dichroism Using a Transmission Electron Microscope.” Nature 441, no. 7092 (May 25, 2006): 486–88.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fell, Gregory J. Decoding the IT Value Problem. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013.
An edited book
Frisch, Wolfgang. Plate Tectonics: Continental Drift and Mountain Building. Edited by Martin Meschede and Ronald C. Blakey. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Nemati, Abbas, and Mohammadreza Faieghi. “The Performance Comparison of ANFIS and Hammerstein-Wiener Models for BLDC Motors.” In Electronics and Signal Processing: Selected Papers from the 2011 International Conference on Electric and Electronics (EEIC 2011) in Nanchang, China on June 20–22, 2011, Volume 1, edited by Wensong Hu, 29–37. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Eighteenth-Century Life.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. “World’s Oldest Water Discovered 3 Kilometers Underground.” IFLScience. IFLScience, December 15, 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Gender Equity: Men’s and Women’s Participation in Higher Education.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, January 16, 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schaper, Phillip. “Meaning Making: Learning in Whistle Blowing.” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sansal, Boualem. “The Altered State of France.” New York Times, May 8, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleEighteenth-Century Life
AbbreviationEighteenth Century Life
ISSN (print)0098-2601
ISSN (online)1086-3192
Literature and Literary Theory
Visual Arts and Performing Arts
Cultural Studies

Other styles