How to format your references using the Eighteenth-Century Life citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Eighteenth-Century Life. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kubin, Ladislas. “Materials Science. Collective Defect Behavior under Stress.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 312, no. 5775 (May 12, 2006): 864–65.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boettiger, Alistair N., and Michael Levine. “Synchronous and Stochastic Patterns of Gene Activation in the Drosophila Embryo.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 325, no. 5939 (July 24, 2009): 471–73.
A journal article with 3 authors
Saper, Clifford B., Thomas E. Scammell, and Jun Lu. “Hypothalamic Regulation of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms.” Nature 437, no. 7063 (October 27, 2005): 1257–63.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Leadbetter, Elizabeth A., Ian R. Rifkin, Andreas M. Hohlbaum, Britte C. Beaudette, Mark J. Shlomchik, and Ann Marshak-Rothstein. “Chromatin-IgG Complexes Activate B Cells by Dual Engagement of IgM and Toll-like Receptors.” Nature 416, no. 6881 (April 11, 2002): 603–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dacey, John S., Lisa B. Fiore, and Steven Brion-Meisels. Your Child’s Social and Emotional Well-Being. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2016.
An edited book
Miesenberger, Klaus, Deborah Fels, Dominique Archambault, Petr Peňáz, and Wolfgang Zagler, eds. Computers Helping People with Special Needs: 14th International Conference, ICCHP 2014, Paris, France, July 9-11, 2014, Proceedings, Part II. Vol. 8548. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Lisahunter, Elke Emerald, and Gregory Martin. “Methodology of Activism in Research.” In Participatory Activist Research in the Globalised World: Social Change Through the Cultural Professions, edited by Elke Emerald and Gregory Martin, 61–72. Explorations of Educational Purpose. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2013.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Eighteenth-Century Life.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. “Cancer Drug Cures Mice Of Hepatitis B.” IFLScience. IFLScience, April 22, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Resources, Community, and Economic Development Information Systems Issue Area: Active Assignments.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, July 1, 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Felder Derkacs, Amanda Dawn. “The Role of Desmin in the Signaling Response to Mechanical Stretch of Skeletal Muscle.” Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira, Susan. “Strange Moors.” New York Times, December 15, 2013.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleEighteenth-Century Life
AbbreviationEighteenth Century Life
ISSN (print)0098-2601
ISSN (online)1086-3192
Literature and Literary Theory
Visual Arts and Performing Arts
Cultural Studies

Other styles