How to format your references using the Eighteenth-Century Life citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Eighteenth-Century Life. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sethmann, Ingo. “Materials Science. Creating Flexible Calcite Fibers with Proteins.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 339, no. 6125 (March 15, 2013): 1281–82.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sigala, Natasha, and Nikos K. Logothetis. “Visual Categorization Shapes Feature Selectivity in the Primate Temporal Cortex.” Nature 415, no. 6869 (January 17, 2002): 318–20.
A journal article with 3 authors
Velev, Orlin D., Brian G. Prevo, and Ketan H. Bhatt. “On-Chip Manipulation of Free Droplets.” Nature 426, no. 6966 (December 4, 2003): 515–16.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lorenz, Ivo C., Joseph Marcotrigiano, Thomas G. Dentzer, and Charles M. Rice. “Structure of the Catalytic Domain of the Hepatitis C Virus NS2-3 Protease.” Nature 442, no. 7104 (August 17, 2006): 831–35.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anichini, Giulia, Flavia Carraro, Philippe Geslin, and Georges Guille-Escuret. Technicity vs Scientificity. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2017.
An edited book
Carating, Rodelio B. The Soils of the Philippines. Edited by Raymundo G. Galanta and Clarita D. Bacatio. World Soils Book Series. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang, Bin, Fang Yue, Yang Liu, and Peifang Fu. “A Quantitative Method for Determining the Primary Air Ratio in Coal-Fired Power Plant.” In Clean Coal Technology and Sustainable Development: Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Coal Combustion, edited by Guangxi Yue and Shuiqing Li, 39–43. Singapore: Springer, 2016.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Eighteenth-Century Life.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. “These Virtual Reality Headsets Make Farmed Chickens Believe They Roam Free.” IFLScience. IFLScience, May 20, 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Intelligence Programs: New RC-135 Aircraft Engines Can Reduce Cost and Improve Performance.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, August 25, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wolff, Ashley. “PRIDE: A Psycho-Educational Peer Support Group for LGBTIQ Youth: A Grant Proposal.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, James. “A Brutal Season of Prison Siege.” New York Times, June 8, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleEighteenth-Century Life
AbbreviationEighteenth Century Life
ISSN (print)0098-2601
ISSN (online)1086-3192
Literature and Literary Theory
Visual Arts and Performing Arts
Cultural Studies

Other styles