How to format your references using the Eighteenth-Century Life citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Eighteenth-Century Life. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Behnia, Kamran. “Physics. Elemental Complexity.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 321, no. 5888 (July 25, 2008): 497–98.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ellwood, Martin D. F., and William A. Foster. “Doubling the Estimate of Invertebrate Biomass in a Rainforest Canopy.” Nature 429, no. 6991 (June 3, 2004): 549–51.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fouchier, Ron A. M., Sander Herfst, and Albert D. M. E. Osterhaus. “Public Health and Biosecurity. Restricted Data on Influenza H5N1 Virus Transmission.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 335, no. 6069 (February 10, 2012): 662–63.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kennedy, Theodore A., Shahid Naeem, Katherine M. Howe, Johannes M. H. Knops, David Tilman, and Peter Reich. “Biodiversity as a Barrier to Ecological Invasion.” Nature 417, no. 6889 (June 6, 2002): 636–38.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Millon, Theodore, and Seth Grossman. Moderating Severe Personality Disorders. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007.
An edited book
Erfurt-Cooper, Patricia, ed. Volcanic Tourist Destinations. Geoheritage, Geoparks and Geotourism, Conservation and Management Series. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Privat, Michael, and Rob Warner. “Working with Data Objects.” In Pro Core Data for IOS: Data Access and Persistence Engine for IPhone, IPad, and IPod Touch, edited by Rob Warner, 129–80. Berkeley, CA: Apress, 2011.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Eighteenth-Century Life.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. “Humane Shark Deterrent Prevents 90% of Encounters.” IFLScience. IFLScience, June 20, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. “Intellectual Property: Federal Agency Efforts in Transferring and Reporting New Technology.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, October 31, 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boyle, Chelsea N. “Support Program for Transition Age Youth: A Grant Proposal.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, Peter. “President Assails ‘Joke’ Justice And Seeks Visa Program’s End.” New York Times, November 1, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleEighteenth-Century Life
AbbreviationEighteenth Century Life
ISSN (print)0098-2601
ISSN (online)1086-3192
Literature and Literary Theory
Visual Arts and Performing Arts
Cultural Studies

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