How to format your references using the Egyptian Informatics Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Egyptian Informatics Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Liechty J. Scientists and bankers - a new model army. Nature 2012;484:143.
A journal article with 2 authors
Olson EL, Allen RM. The deterministic nature of earthquake rupture. Nature 2005;438:212–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tripati AK, Roberts CD, Eagle RA. Coupling of CO2 and ice sheet stability over major climate transitions of the last 20 million years. Science 2009;326:1394–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wu H, Li H, Kwok RTK, Zhao E, Sun JZ, Qin A, et al. A recyclable and reusable supported Cu(I) catalyzed azide-alkyne click polymerization. Sci Rep 2014;4:5107.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bain BJ, Wild BJ, Stephens AD, Phelan LA. Variant Haemoglobins. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Soetaert K, Herman PMJ, editors. A Practical Guide to Ecological Modelling: Using R as a Simulation Platform. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Ernst R, Linsenmair KE, Thomas R, Rödel M-O. Amphibian communities in disturbed forests: lessons from the Neo- and Afrotropics. In: Tscharntke T, Leuschner C, Zeller M, Guhardja E, Bidin A, editors. Stability of Tropical Rainforest Margins: Linking Ecological, Economic and Social Constraints of Land Use and Conservation, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007, p. 59–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Egyptian Informatics Journal.

Blog post
Andrew D. Jungle Boogie: Five Dancing Animals Who Know How To Strut Their Stuff. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Implementation Status of the Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Camaya C. Teachers’ perceptions of social skills instruction for children with autism spectrum disorders. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. The Facts Win Out on Abortion. New York Times 2016:A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEgyptian Informatics Journal
AbbreviationEgypt. Inform. J.
ISSN (print)1110-8665
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Information Systems
Management Science and Operations Research

Other styles