How to format your references using the Perspectives on Politics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives on Politics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rousselle, Tristan. 2004. “Recruiters and Industry. Dual Competencies.” Nature 430(6998): 488.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nijhout, H. Frederik, and Laura W. Grunert. 2010. “The Cellular and Physiological Mechanism of Wing-Body Scaling in Manduca Sexta.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 330(6011): 1693–95.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bush, Mark B., Miles R. Silman, and Dunia H. Urrego. 2004. “48,000 Years of Climate and Forest Change in a Biodiversity Hot Spot.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 303(5659): 827–29.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Nishinaga, Osamu, Tatsuya Kikuchi, Shungo Natsui, and Ryosuke O. Suzuki. 2013. “Rapid Fabrication of Self-Ordered Porous Alumina with 10-/Sub-10-Nm-Scale Nanostructures by Selenic Acid Anodizing.” Scientific reports 3: 2748.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Samara, Tarek. 2015. ERP and Information Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lee, Kun Chang, ed. 2013. 32 Digital Creativity: Individuals, Groups, and Organizations. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
de Vries, Katja, and Niels van Dijk. 2013. “A Bump in the Road. Ruling Out Law from Technology.” In Human Law and Computer Law: Comparative Perspectives, eds. Mireille Hildebrandt and Jeanne Gaakeer. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 89–121.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives on Politics.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2016. “Vaccine Against Alzheimer’s Disease Protein Passes First Stage Of Clinical Trials.” IFLScience. (October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. Information Technology: HUD Can Take Additional Actions to Improve Its Governance. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Monteiro, Katia R. 2012. “An Experimental Study of Corrective Feedback on Synchronous Oral Computer-Mediated Communication.” Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hay, George, Margaret Doyle, and James Pethokoukis. 2010. “Planned U.S. Tax Might Hurt Europe’s Banks Less.” New York Times: B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rousselle 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Nijhout and Grunert 2010; Rousselle 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nijhout and Grunert 2010)
  • Three authors: (Bush, Silman, and Urrego 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Nishinaga et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives on Politics
ISSN (print)1537-5927
ISSN (online)1541-0986
ScopePolitical Science and International Relations

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