How to format your references using the Perspectives on Politics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives on Politics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alberts, Bruce. 2011. “Editor’s Note.” Science (New York, N.Y.).
A journal article with 2 authors
Limardo, Alexander J., and Alexandra Z. Worden. 2015. “Microbiology: Exclusive Networks in the Sea.” Nature 522(7554): 36–37.
A journal article with 3 authors
Parker, John D., Deron E. Burkepile, and Mark E. Hay. 2006. “Opposing Effects of Native and Exotic Herbivores on Plant Invasions.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 311(5766): 1459–61.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zhou, Bin et al. 2014. “Bidirectional Selection between Two Classes in Complex Social Networks.” Scientific reports 4: 7577.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wiebe, Valerie J. 2015. Drug Therapy for Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Némethi, András, and Ágnes Szilárd, eds. 2013. 23 Deformations of Surface Singularities. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Saleem, Muhammad, Qaiser Mehmood, and Axel-Cyrille Ngonga Ngomo. 2015. “FEASIBLE: A Feature-Based SPARQL Benchmark Generation Framework.” In The Semantic Web - ISWC 2015: 14th International Semantic Web Conference, Bethlehem, PA, USA, October 11-15, 2015, Proceedings, Part I, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, eds. Marcelo Arenas et al. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 52–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives on Politics.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2016. “Ghost Ship Washes Up On Liberian Coast With Crew Missing.” IFLScience. (October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2005. Head Start: Comprehensive Approach to Identifying and Addressing Risks Could Help Prevent Grantee Financial Management Weaknesses. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kolakoski, Mike. 2013. “The Appeal to Be Heard and the Trope of Listening in Classic Film and African American Literature.” Doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Chira, Susan. 2017. “A New Rating For Portrayals Of Gender.” New York Times: C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Alberts 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Alberts 2011; Limardo and Worden 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Limardo and Worden 2015)
  • Three authors: (Parker, Burkepile, and Hay 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Zhou et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives on Politics
ISSN (print)1537-5927
ISSN (online)1541-0986
ScopePolitical Science and International Relations

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