How to format your references using the Perspectives on Politics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives on Politics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brooks, J. Renée. 2015. “HYDROLOGY. Water, Bound and Mobile.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 349(6244): 138–39.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jacob, Leni, and Lawrence Lum. 2007. “Deconstructing the Hedgehog Pathway in Development and Disease.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 318(5847): 66–68.
A journal article with 3 authors
Coussens, Lisa M., Barbara Fingleton, and Lynn M. Matrisian. 2002. “Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors and Cancer: Trials and Tribulations.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 295(5564): 2387–92.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Wu, Wu-Qiang et al. 2013. “Hydrothermal Fabrication of Hierarchically Anatase TiO2 Nanowire Arrays on FTO Glass for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.” Scientific reports 3: 1352.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lu, Kathy. 2014. Materials in Energy Conversion, Harvesting, and Storage. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lai, Carlo G., and Krzysztof Wilmański, eds. 2005. 481 Surface Waves in Geomechanics: Direct and Inverse Modelling for Soils and Rocks. Vienna: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Mittnik, Stefan, Willi Semmler, Mika Kato, and Daniel Samaan. 2014. “Modeling the Dynamics of the Transition to a Green Economy.” In Dynamic Optimization in Environmental Economics, Dynamic Modeling and Econometrics in Economics and Finance, eds. Elke Moser, Willi Semmler, Gernot Tragler, and Vladimir M. Veliov. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 87–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives on Politics.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2017. “NASA Cements Future Of Manned Space Exploration By Ordering More Launches From SpaceX And Boeing.” IFLScience. (October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1990. Tax System Modernization: IRS’ Efforts to Improve Taxpayer Correspondence. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moore, Kelsey C. 2014. “Coping Strategies for Adolescents Whose Parents Have Cancer: A Curriculum.” Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Meacham, Jon. 2016. “The Grace of George H.W. Bush.” New York Times: SR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brooks 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Brooks 2015; Jacob and Lum 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jacob and Lum 2007)
  • Three authors: (Coussens, Fingleton, and Matrisian 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wu et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives on Politics
ISSN (print)1537-5927
ISSN (online)1541-0986
ScopePolitical Science and International Relations

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