How to format your references using the Perspectives on Politics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives on Politics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zastrow, Mark. 2015. “Data Visualization: Science on the Map.” Nature 519(7541): 119–20.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gatenby, Robert A., and Philip K. Maini. 2003. “Mathematical Oncology: Cancer Summed Up.” Nature 421(6921): 321.
A journal article with 3 authors
Charlesworth, Jonathan D., Timothy L. Warren, and Michael S. Brainard. 2012. “Covert Skill Learning in a Cortical-Basal Ganglia Circuit.” Nature 486(7402): 251–55.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Freeman, C. et al. 2001. “Export of Organic Carbon from Peat Soils.” Nature 412(6849): 785.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. 2010. Guidelines for Acquisition Evaluation and Post Merger Integration. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Pellegrino, Carlo, and José Sena-Cruz, eds. 2016. 19 Design Procedures for the Use of Composites in Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Structures: State-of-the-Art Report of the RILEM Technical Committee 234-DUC. 1st ed. 2016. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen, Hubie. 2012. “Meditations on Quantified Constraint Satisfaction.” In Logic and Program Semantics: Essays Dedicated to Dexter Kozen on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, eds. Robert L. Constable and Alexandra Silva. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 35–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives on Politics.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2014. “World’s Second Largest Impact Crater Was Made by a Comet.” IFLScience. (October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. Space Station: Cost Control Problems Continue to Worsen. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lindsey, Melanie M. 2010. “Sampling Frequency for Semi-Arid Streams and Rivers: Implications for National Parks in the Sonoran Desert Network.” Doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, James. 2017. “Mets’ Big Five Are Starting Healthy.” New York Times: B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zastrow 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Gatenby and Maini 2003; Zastrow 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gatenby and Maini 2003)
  • Three authors: (Charlesworth, Warren, and Brainard 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Freeman et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives on Politics
ISSN (print)1537-5927
ISSN (online)1541-0986
ScopePolitical Science and International Relations

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