How to format your references using the Perspectives on Politics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives on Politics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McCauley, Douglas J. 2006. “Selling out on Nature.” Nature 443(7107): 27–28.
A journal article with 2 authors
Winograd, Isaac J., and Eugene H. Roseboom Jr. 2008. “Nuclear Waste. Yucca Mountain Revisited.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 320(5882): 1426–27.
A journal article with 3 authors
Winter, York, Jorge López, and Otto Von Helversen. 2003. “Ultraviolet Vision in a Bat.” Nature 425(6958): 612–14.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Mueller, Ken L. et al. 2005. “The Receptors and Coding Logic for Bitter Taste.” Nature 434(7030): 225–29.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bejan, Adrian. 2016. Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sumi, Akimasa, Kensuke Fukushi, and Ai Hiramatsu, eds. 2010. Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies for Climate Change. Tokyo: Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Farrelly, Cathleen, and Valerie Lovejoy. 2015. “A Whole-School Approach to Adolescent Wellbeing in Open-Plan Schools.” In Personalising Learning in Open-Plan Schools, eds. Vaughan Prain et al. Rotterdam: SensePublishers, 57–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives on Politics.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “800-Pound Stingray Is One Of The Largest Freshwater Fish Ever Recorded.” IFLScience. (October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2000. Pipeline Safety: The Office of Pipeline Safety Is Changing How It Oversees the Pipeline Industry. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Miramontes, Adriana J. 2017. “Examining Eye Fixation Patterns during the Situation Present Assessment Method (SPAM) under Varying Levels of Workload.” Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda. 2006. “Justices to Say When Police Can Enter Private Home.” New York Times: A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McCauley 2006).
This sentence cites two references (McCauley 2006; Winograd and Roseboom 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Winograd and Roseboom 2008)
  • Three authors: (Winter, López, and Von Helversen 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Mueller et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives on Politics
ISSN (print)1537-5927
ISSN (online)1541-0986
ScopePolitical Science and International Relations

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