How to format your references using the Perspectives on Politics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives on Politics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McArdle, J. 2000. “Animal Welfare Act’s Changes Deserve Praise, Not Panic.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 290(5495): 1299c–1300c.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stephens, David J., and Victoria J. Allan. 2003. “Light Microscopy Techniques for Live Cell Imaging.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 300(5616): 82–86.
A journal article with 3 authors
Didham, Raphael K., Robert M. Ewers, and Neil J. Gemmell. 2005. “Comment on ‘Avian Extinction and Mammalian Introductions on Oceanic Islands.’” Science (New York, N.Y.) 307(5714): 1412; author reply 1412.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Qi, Zhenhua, Guangsheng Pei, Lei Chen, and Weiwen Zhang. 2014. “Single-Cell Analysis Reveals Gene-Expression Heterogeneity in Syntrophic Dual-Culture of Desulfovibrio Vulgaris with Methanosarcina Barkeri.” Scientific reports 4: 7478.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Runcie, Tim, and Mark Dochtermann. 2013. Making Effective Business Decisions Using Microsoft Project. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Carmo Nicoletti, Maria do, and Lakhmi C. Jain, eds. 2009. 218 Computational Intelligence Techniques for Bioprocess Modelling, Supervision and Control. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Charvoz, Linda et al. 2016. “A Survey of Couples Facing Breast Cancer in Women.” In Surveying Human Vulnerabilities across the Life Course, Life Course Research and Social Policies, eds. Michel Oris, Caroline Roberts, Dominique Joye, and Michèle Ernst Stähli. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 113–29.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives on Politics.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Animation Shows 550 Million Years Of Human Evolution In Seconds.” IFLScience. (October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2011. Traffic and Vehicle Safety: Reauthorization Offers Opportunities to Extend Recent Progress. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mullis, Joseph. 2009. “The Impact of the Media on Public Opinion of the Police.” Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Davey, Monica. 2017. “Drop in Violence Gives a City Hope.” New York Times: A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McArdle 2000).
This sentence cites two references (McArdle 2000; Stephens and Allan 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stephens and Allan 2003)
  • Three authors: (Didham, Ewers, and Gemmell 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Qi et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives on Politics
ISSN (print)1537-5927
ISSN (online)1541-0986
ScopePolitical Science and International Relations

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