How to format your references using the Perspectives on Politics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives on Politics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cammack, Nick. 2011. “Microbiology. Exploiting Malaria Drug Resistance to Our Advantage.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 333(6043): 705–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hilfinger, Andreas, and Johan Paulsson. 2015. “Systems Biology: Defiant Daughters and Coordinated Cousins.” Nature 519(7544): 422–23.
A journal article with 3 authors
Deng, Hansong, Akos A. Gerencser, and Heinrich Jasper. 2015. “Signal Integration by Ca(2+) Regulates Intestinal Stem-Cell Activity.” Nature 528(7581): 212–17.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Yoshida, Yamato, Haruko Kuroiwa, Osami Misumi, Masaki Yoshida, Mio Ohnuma, Takayuki Fujiwara, Fumi Yagisawa, et al. 2010. “Chloroplasts Divide by Contraction of a Bundle of Nanofilaments Consisting of Polyglucan.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 329(5994): 949–53.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hooker, John. 2000. Logic-Based Methods for Optimization. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Damjanovich, Sandor, ed. 2005. Biophysical Aspects of Transmembrane Signaling. Vol. 8 Springer Series in Biophysics Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cugusi, Battistina. 2015. “Future Perspectives for the European Neighbourhood Policy.” In Neighbourhood Policy and the Construction of the European External Borders, ed. Filippo Celata and Raffaella Coletti. GeoJournal Library Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives on Politics.

Blog post
Evans, Katy. 2016. “How AI Will Affect Urban Life In 2030, According To Scientists.” IFLScience IFLScience. (, accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. “[Comments on NTSB Employee’s Claim for TQSE].” B-260471 Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kurulugama, Ruwan T. 2009. “Overtone Mobility Spectrometry.” Doctoral dissertation, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, James. 2016. “Where Presidential Aspirations Are Finally Laid to Rest.” New York Times, November 3: C17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives on Politics
ISSN (print)1537-5927
ISSN (online)1541-0986
ScopePolitical Science and International Relations

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