How to format your references using the Education and Information Technologies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Education and Information Technologies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ott, U. (2000). PLANETARY SCIENCE: Enhanced: Salty Old Rocks. Science (New York, N.Y.), 288(5472), 1761–1762.
A journal article with 2 authors
Patrinos, A. A. N., & Bradley, R. A. (2009). Environment. Energy and technology policies for managing carbon risk. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5943), 949–950.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grenier, M. B., McDonald, D. B., & Buskirk, S. W. (2007). Rapid population growth of a critically endangered carnivore. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5839), 779.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wahlström, E., Vestergaard, E. K., Schaub, R., Rønnau, A., Vestergaard, M., Laegsgaard, E., et al. (2004). Electron transfer-induced dynamics of oxygen molecules on the TiO2(110) surface. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5657), 511–513.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D’Andrea, A., & Sjogren, J. (2013). Veterinary Technician’s Large Animal Daily Reference Guide. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Lowen, R., & Verschoren, A. (Eds.). (2008). Foundations of Generic Optimization: Volume 2: Applications of Fuzzy Control, Genetic Algorithms and Neural Networks (Vol. 24). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Dias, P. M. C., & Stuchi, T. J. (2011). Isaac Newton, Robert Hooke and the Mystery of the Orbit. In D. Krause & A. Videira (Eds.), Brazilian Studies in Philosophy and History of Science: An account of recent works (pp. 77–94). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Education and Information Technologies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, June 5). Humans, Not Climate Change, To Blame For Ice Age Animal Extinction. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Transportation Infrastructure: Reshaping the Federal Role Poses Significant Challenge for Policy Makers (No. RCED-90-81A). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clark, S. (2014). Psychological resilience, daily stressors, and implications for physical activity levels in mothers with young children (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller, B. (2015, October 22). Bible Study Group Devolved Into a Lethal Sect. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ott 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Ott 2000; Patrinos and Bradley 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Patrinos and Bradley 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Wahlström et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducation and Information Technologies
AbbreviationEduc. Inf. Technol.
ISSN (print)1360-2357
ISSN (online)1573-7608
Library and Information Sciences

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