How to format your references using the Education and Information Technologies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Education and Information Technologies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rees, M. J. (2002). Cosmology. How the cosmic dark age ended. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5552), 51–53.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dulcis, D., & Spitzer, N. C. (2008). Illumination controls differentiation of dopamine neurons regulating behaviour. Nature, 456(7219), 195–201.
A journal article with 3 authors
Haile-Selassie, Y., Suwa, G., & White, T. D. (2004). Late Miocene teeth from Middle Awash, Ethiopia, and early hominid dental evolution. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5663), 1503–1505.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
David, L., Feldman, A., Mansfield, E., Lehman, J., & Singh, G. (2014). Evaluating the thermal damage resistance of graphene/carbon nanotube hybrid composite coatings. Scientific reports, 4, 4311.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dant, S. (2016). Losing Eden. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Witrant, E., Fridman, E., Sename, O., & Dugard, L. (Eds.). (2016). Recent Results on Time-Delay Systems: Analysis and Control (1st ed. 2016., Vol. 5). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Cano, A., Navarrete, J. P., & Seade, J. (2013). Kleinian Groups with a Control Group. In J. P. Navarrete & J. Seade (Eds.), Complex Kleinian Groups (pp. 119–136). Basel: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Education and Information Technologies.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, April 2). Secrets of the Flying Snake Revealed. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2009). High Speed Passenger Rail: Developing Viable High Speed Rail Projects under the Recovery Act and Beyond (No. GAO-10-162T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williams, K. (2014). The lexicographic treatment of color terms (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter, J. (2017, July 26). European Court Is Urged to Punish Hungary and Slovakia Over Refugees. New York Times, p. A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rees 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Dulcis and Spitzer 2008; Rees 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dulcis and Spitzer 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (David et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducation and Information Technologies
AbbreviationEduc. Inf. Technol.
ISSN (print)1360-2357
ISSN (online)1573-7608
Library and Information Sciences

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