How to format your references using the Education and Information Technologies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Education and Information Technologies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chan, M. A. (2015). PLANETARY SCIENCE. The martian lake chronicles. Science (New York, N.Y.), 350(6257), 167.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yan, K., & Fujita, M. (2015). CATALYSIS. A speedy marriage in supramolecular catalysis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 350(6265), 1165–1166.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schenk, P., Matsuyama, I., & Nimmo, F. (2008). True polar wander on Europa from global-scale small-circle depressions. Nature, 453(7193), 368–371.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
van Borkulo, C. D., Borsboom, D., Epskamp, S., Blanken, T. F., Boschloo, L., Schoevers, R. A., & Waldorp, L. J. (2014). A new method for constructing networks from binary data. Scientific reports, 4, 5918.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saccone, C., & Pesole, G. (2005). Handbook of Comparative Genomics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Shehory, O., & Sturm, A. (Eds.). (2014). Agent-Oriented Software Engineering: Reflections on Architectures, Methodologies, Languages, and Frameworks. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sarcar, P., Basu, S., & Ghosh, A. (2015). Broadband Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antennas for K and EHF Bands. In K. Maharatna, G. K. Dalapati, P. K. Banerjee, A. K. Mallick, & M. Mukherjee (Eds.), Computational Advancement in Communication Circuits and Systems: Proceedings of ICCACCS 2014 (pp. 29–37). New Delhi: Springer India.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Education and Information Technologies.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, April 29). Enormous Green Meteor Caught On Camera Above California. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). Electronic Government: National Archives and Records Administration’s Fiscal Year 2011 Expenditure Plan (No. GAO-11-299). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adams, C. A. (2013). Impact of water management and agronomic practices on the performance of insecticide seed treatments against rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, in Mississippi rice (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. (2016, September 19). When There’s Nothing Like a Good Cry. New York Times, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chan 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Chan 2015; Yan and Fujita 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yan and Fujita 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (van Borkulo et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducation and Information Technologies
AbbreviationEduc. Inf. Technol.
ISSN (print)1360-2357
ISSN (online)1573-7608
Library and Information Sciences

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