How to format your references using the Education and Information Technologies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Education and Information Technologies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hughes, V. (2012). Public health: Where there’s smoke. Nature, 489(7417), S18-20.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sriver, R. L., & Huber, M. (2007). Observational evidence for an ocean heat pump induced by tropical cyclones. Nature, 447(7144), 577–580.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kwak, K., Cho, K., & Kim, S. (2013). Stable bending performance of flexible organic light-emitting diodes using IZO anodes. Scientific reports, 3, 2787.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ni, X., Wu, Y., Chen, Z.-G., Zheng, L.-Y., Xu, Y.-L., Nayar, P., et al. (2014). Acoustic rainbow trapping by coiling up space. Scientific reports, 4, 7038.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Richards, A., & Dafydd, H. (2014). Key Notes on Plastic Surgery. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
McConnell, P., Lin, S. M., & Hurban, P. (Eds.). (2007). Methods of Microarray Data Analysis V. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
van der Sloot, B., & Zuiderveen Borgesius, F. (2012). Google and Personal Data Protection. In A. Lopez-Tarruella (Ed.), Google and the Law: Empirical Approaches to Legal Aspects of Knowledge-Economy Business Models (pp. 75–111). The Hague, The Netherlands: T. M. C. Asser Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Education and Information Technologies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 8). Exploring our Moon Today to Learn More About Earth’s Youth Billions of Years Ago. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). Federal-Aid Highways: Cost and Oversight of Major Highway and Bridge Projects--Issues and Options (No. GAO-03-764T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee, J. Y. (2008). Socio-Spatial Exclusion Based on Human Activities and Social Networks in Space-Time: A Case Study of Koreans in Columbus, Ohio (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010, September 30). Wrist Management. New York Times, p. E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hughes 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Hughes 2012; Sriver and Huber 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sriver and Huber 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Ni et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducation and Information Technologies
AbbreviationEduc. Inf. Technol.
ISSN (print)1360-2357
ISSN (online)1573-7608
Library and Information Sciences

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