How to format your references using the Education and Information Technologies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Education and Information Technologies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kealey, T. (2000). More is less. Economists and governments lag decades behind Derek Price’s thinking. Nature, 405(6784), 279.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mannhart, J., & Schlom, D. G. (2010). Oxide interfaces--an opportunity for electronics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5973), 1607–1611.
A journal article with 3 authors
Okada, D., Ozawa, F., & Inokuchi, K. (2009). Input-specific spine entry of soma-derived Vesl-1S protein conforms to synaptic tagging. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5929), 904–909.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Andersen, C. B. F., Ballut, L., Johansen, J. S., Chamieh, H., Nielsen, K. H., Oliveira, C. L. P., et al. (2006). Structure of the exon junction core complex with a trapped DEAD-box ATPase bound to RNA. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5795), 1968–1972.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Akiba, K.-Y. (2011). Organo Main Group Chemistry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Munk, R. (Ed.). (2011). Moses Mendelssohn’s Metaphysics and Aesthetics (Vol. 13). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Ballenger, C. (2007). Teaching as Research: Puzzling Over Words with Fourth Graders. In D. Thiessen & A. Cook-Sather (Eds.), International Handbook of Student Experience in Elementary and Secondary School (pp. 99–114). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Education and Information Technologies.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, September 8). Why You Should Worry About The Privatization Of Genetic Data. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Aviation Safety: Research Supports Limited Use of Personal Computer Aviation Training Devices for Pilots (No. RCED-99-143). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hayen, C. J. (2017). Canine-Assisted Psychotherapy: Finding the Way Back to Our Animal Soul (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2009, July 8). Vasily Aksyonov, 76, Exiled Soviet Writer. New York Times, p. A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kealey 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Kealey 2000; Mannhart and Schlom 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mannhart and Schlom 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Andersen et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducation and Information Technologies
AbbreviationEduc. Inf. Technol.
ISSN (print)1360-2357
ISSN (online)1573-7608
Library and Information Sciences

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