How to format your references using the Education and Information Technologies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Education and Information Technologies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Service, R. F. (2006). American Chemical Society meeting. Snapshots from the meeting. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5796), 47.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bennett, C. H., & DiVincenzo, D. P. (2000). Quantum information and computation. Nature, 404(6775), 247–255.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stroud, R. M., Nittler, L. R., & Alexander, C. M. O. (2004). Polymorphism in presolar Al2O3 grains from asymptotic giant branch stars. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5689), 1455–1457.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
van Praag, H., Schinder, A. F., Christie, B. R., Toni, N., Palmer, T. D., & Gage, F. H. (2002). Functional neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. Nature, 415(6875), 1030–1034.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cousley, R. R. J. (2013). The Orthodontic Mini-Implant Clinical Handbook. Chichester, West Sussex UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Cairns, D. (2013). The Philosophy of Edmund Husserl. (L. Embree, Ed.) (Vol. 207). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Correa, J. R., Feuilloley, L., & Soto, J. A. (2014). Independent and Hitting Sets of Rectangles Intersecting a Diagonal Line. In A. Pardo & A. Viola (Eds.), LATIN 2014: Theoretical Informatics: 11th Latin American Symposium, Montevideo, Uruguay, March 31–April 4, 2014. Proceedings (pp. 35–46). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Education and Information Technologies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, September 18). Nature Can’t Pay Its Own Way – So Let’s Take The Market Out Of Conservation. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). Education and Employment Issues: Issue Area Plan for Fiscal Year 1997-99 (No. IAP-97-10). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Seegmiller Renner, A. (2017). Empathy Development Through Role Modeling: A Qualitative Study of Instructor Experiences (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011, November 29). Welcoming Back N.B.A. With Open Yawns. New York Times, p. B16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Service 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Bennett and DiVincenzo 2000; Service 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bennett and DiVincenzo 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (van Praag et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEducation and Information Technologies
AbbreviationEduc. Inf. Technol.
ISSN (print)1360-2357
ISSN (online)1573-7608
Library and Information Sciences

Other styles