How to format your references using the Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. King DA. The scientific impact of nations. Nature. 2004;430:311–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Liu J, Yang W. Water management. Water sustainability for China and beyond. Science. 2012;337:649–50.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Wible B, Mervis J, Wigginton NS. The global supply chain. Rethinking the global supply chain. Introduction. Science. 2014;344:1100–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Tegus O, Brück E, Buschow KHJ, de Boer FR. Transition-metal-based magnetic refrigerants for room-temperature applications. Nature. 2002;415:150–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Richards A, Dafydd H. Key Notes on Plastic Surgery. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Gavrilova ML, Tan CJK, editors. Transactions on Computational Science XIII. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. El-Sonbaty Y, Youssef SM, Fathalla KM. Enhanced Fuzzy-Based Models for ROI Extraction in Medical Images. In: Kim T-H, Adeli H, Ramos C, Kang B-H, editors. Signal Processing, Image Processing and Pattern Recognition: International Conference, SIP 2011, Held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference FGIT 2011, in Conjunction with GDC 2011, Jeju Island, Korea, December 8-10, 2011 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 26–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. Creationist Scientist Sues The Grand Canyon For Religious Discrimination [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Title I Program: Stronger Accountability Needed for Performance of Disadvantaged Students. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000 Jun. Report No.: HEHS-00-89.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Rangwala R. The Role of the PDZ Protein, Erbin, in Schwann Cells [Doctoral dissertation]. [Cincinnati, OH]: University of Cincinnati; 2005.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Clarey C. Open Champion Shows Vulnerability Off the Court, Not on It. New York Times. 2016 Sep 13;B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleActa Veterinaria Scandinavica
AbbreviationActa Vet. Scand.
ISSN (online)1751-0147
ScopeGeneral Medicine
General Veterinary

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