How to format your references using the Ecotoxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecotoxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hodson R (2015) Small organ, big reach. Nature 528:S118-9
A journal article with 2 authors
Topisirovic I, Sonenberg N (2010) Cell biology. Burn out or fade away? Science 327:1210–1211
A journal article with 3 authors
Mashchenko S, Couchman HMP, Wadsley J (2006) The removal of cusps from galaxy centres by stellar feedback in the early Universe. Nature 442:539–542
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Nakayama J, Rice JC, Strahl BD, et al (2001) Role of histone H3 lysine 9 methylation in epigenetic control of heterochromatin assembly. Science 292:110–113

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Martin-Flatin J-P (2002) Web-Based Management of IP Networks and Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Wang W (ed) (2015) Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Mechatronics and Automatic Control. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Moniuszko A, Patel D (2011) Practice Test #3: Difficulty Level – Hard. In: Patel D (ed) Nuclear Medicine Technology Study Guide: A Technologist’s Review for Passing Board Exams. Springer, New York, NY, pp 159–240

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecotoxicology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) The Netherlands’ Railway Aims To Run On 100% Wind Power By 2018. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) Buy America Requirements: Federal Enforcement Questioned in Sacramento Mass Transit Procurement. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salmons I (2017) Best Practices for Managing Burnout in Attorneys. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J (2016) Five Americans Listed for Man Booker Prize. New York Times C3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hodson 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Topisirovic and Sonenberg 2010; Hodson 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Topisirovic and Sonenberg 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Nakayama et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcotoxicology
ISSN (print)0963-9292
ISSN (online)1573-3017
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
General Medicine

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