How to format your references using the Ecotoxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecotoxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gleick PH (2002) Soft water paths. Nature 418:373
A journal article with 2 authors
Sime LC, Wolff EW (2011) Antarctic accumulation seasonality. Nature 479:E1-2; author reply E2-4
A journal article with 3 authors
Bredesen DE, Rao RV, Mehlen P (2006) Cell death in the nervous system. Nature 443:796–802
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Martin SJ, Beekman M, Wossler TC, Ratnieks FLW (2002) Parasitic Cape honeybee workers, Apis mellifera capensis, evade policing. Nature 415:163–165

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Santamarina JC, Fratta D (2006) Discrete Signals and Inverse Problems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
MacDonald M (2005) Pro ASP.NET 2.0 in C# 2005. Apress, Berkeley, CA
A chapter in an edited book
Jiang W, Ho ATS, Treharne H (2009) A Novel Least Distortion Linear Gain Model for Halftone Image Watermarking Incorporating Perceptual Quality Metrics. In: Shi YQ (ed) Transactions on Data Hiding and Multimedia Security IV. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 65–83

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecotoxicology.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) Possible Treatment for MERS Revealed. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/possible-treatment-mers-revealed/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) U.S. Trade and Development Agency: Limitations Exist in Its Ability to Help Generate U.S. Exports. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Egan GC (2015) Understanding the reaction mechanism of aluminum nanocomposite thermites. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2016) Bruce Limps Off, and the Mets Crumble. New York Times B13

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gleick 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Gleick 2002; Sime and Wolff 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sime and Wolff 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Martin et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcotoxicology
AbbreviationEcotoxicology
ISSN (print)0963-9292
ISSN (online)1573-3017
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
General Medicine
Toxicology

Other styles