How to format your references using the Ecotoxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecotoxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Livio M (2002) Astrophysical spouts: the jet set. Nature 417:125
A journal article with 2 authors
Sahin E, Depinho RA (2010) Linking functional decline of telomeres, mitochondria and stem cells during ageing. Nature 464:520–528
A journal article with 3 authors
Izawa Y, Pun D, Stahl SS (2011) Palladium-catalyzed aerobic dehydrogenation of substituted cyclohexanones to phenols. Science 333:209–213
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kaltenboeck G, Harris T, Sun K, et al (2014) Accessing thermoplastic processing windows in metallic glasses using rapid capacitive discharge. Sci Rep 4:6441

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hollin CR (2016) The Psychology of Interpersonal Violence. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Abdul Rahman A, Boguslawski P, Gold C, Said MN (eds) (2013) Developments in Multidimensional Spatial Data Models. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Bauer JW, Lang R, Jakab M, Kofler B (2010) Galanin Family of Peptides in Skin Function. In: Hökfelt T (ed) Galanin. Springer, Basel, pp 51–59

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecotoxicology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) When An Antarctic Iceberg The Size Of A Country Breaks Away, What Happens Next? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003) Space Acquisitions: Committing Prematurely to the Transformational Satellite Program Elevates Risks for Poor Cost, Schedule, and Performance Outcomes. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Greene AE (2012) An Inquiry into Workplace Incivility: Perceptions of Working Graduate Students. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S (2000) Banks Scores Six Goals As Syracuse Wins Title. New York Times D6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Livio 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Livio 2002; Sahin and Depinho 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sahin and Depinho 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Kaltenboeck et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcotoxicology
ISSN (print)0963-9292
ISSN (online)1573-3017
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
General Medicine

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