How to format your references using the Ecotoxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecotoxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Freger V (2015) MEMBRANES. Outperforming nature’s membranes. Science 348:1317–1318
A journal article with 2 authors
Noble AJ, Stagg SM (2015) STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY. COPI gets a fancy new coat. Science 349:142–143
A journal article with 3 authors
Kuba H, Oichi Y, Ohmori H (2010) Presynaptic activity regulates Na(+) channel distribution at the axon initial segment. Nature 465:1075–1078
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Pfeifer MA, Williams GJ, Vartanyants IA, et al (2006) Three-dimensional mapping of a deformation field inside a nanocrystal. Nature 442:63–66

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schwedt G (2010) Zuckersüße Chemie. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Sandnes FE, Zhang Y, Rong C, et al (eds) (2008) Ubiquitous Intelligence and Computing: 5th International Conference, UIC 2008, Oslo, Norway, June 23-25, 2008 Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Wentz B, Cirba M, Kharal N, et al (2012) Evaluating the Accessibility and Usability of Blogging Platforms for Blind Users. In: Langdon P, Clarkson J, Robinson P, et al. (eds) Designing Inclusive Systems: Designing Inclusion for Real-world Applications. Springer, London, pp 43–52

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecotoxicology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) 10 Of The Strangest Known Medical Conditions. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/10-strangest-known-medical-conditions/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) JFMIP News: A Newsletter for Government Financial Managers, Fall 1997, Vol. 9, No. 3. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Levy MR (2009) Visual perception and Gestalt grouping in the landscape: Are Gestalt grouping prinicples reliable indicators of visual preference? Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Yablonsky L (2012) Mystery House. New York Times ST3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Freger 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Freger 2015; Noble and Stagg 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Noble and Stagg 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Pfeifer et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcotoxicology
AbbreviationEcotoxicology
ISSN (print)0963-9292
ISSN (online)1573-3017
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
General Medicine
Toxicology

Other styles