How to format your references using the Ecotoxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecotoxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Falkowski PG (2006) Evolution. Tracing oxygen’s imprint on earth’s metabolic evolution. Science 311:1724–1725
A journal article with 2 authors
Rosenthal Y, Broccoli AJ (2004) Atmospheric science. In search of paleo-ENSO. Science 304:219–221
A journal article with 3 authors
Gorb EV, Purtov J, Gorb SN (2014) Adhesion force measurements on the two wax layers of the waxy zone in Nepenthes alata pitchers. Sci Rep 4:5154
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Whitehead GG, Makino S, Lien C-L, Keating MT (2005) fgf20 is essential for initiating zebrafish fin regeneration. Science 310:1957–1960

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Padova T (2011) Adobe® Acrobat® X PDF Bible. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA
An edited book
Nelson JK (ed) (2010) Dielectric Polymer Nanocomposites. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Nikodem M, Bawiec MA, Surmacz TR (2010) Negative Difference Resistance and Its Application to Construct Boolean Logic Circuits. In: Kwiecień A, Gaj P, Stera P (eds) Computer Networks: 17th Conference, CN 2010, Ustroń, Poland, June 15-19, 2010. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 39–48

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecotoxicology.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2016) Genes Reveal How The Seahorse Got Its Snout And Became A Great Father. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Highlights of a GAO Forum: Global Competitiveness: Implications for the Nation’s Higher Education System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia AD (2013) Long-term shifts in adolescent Nicotine reward following early methylphenidate exposure in male and female rats. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Christie R (2016) Trump and Black America. New York Times A19

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Falkowski 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Rosenthal and Broccoli 2004; Falkowski 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rosenthal and Broccoli 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Whitehead et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcotoxicology
ISSN (print)0963-9292
ISSN (online)1573-3017
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
General Medicine

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