How to format your references using the Ecotoxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecotoxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Burns JA (2014) Solar system: Ring in the new. Nature 508:48–49
A journal article with 2 authors
Burke A, Robinson LF (2012) The Southern Ocean’s role in carbon exchange during the last deglaciation. Science 335:557–561
A journal article with 3 authors
Navrotsky A, Mazeina L, Majzlan J (2008) Size-driven structural and thermodynamic complexity in iron oxides. Science 319:1635–1638
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Quintana FJ, Basso AS, Iglesias AH, et al (2008) Control of T(reg) and T(H)17 cell differentiation by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Nature 453:65–71

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cruz MG, Peters GW, Shevchenko PV (2015) Fundamental Aspects of Operational Risk and Insurance Analytics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Shi YQ (ed) (2012) Transactions on Data Hiding and Multimedia Security VII. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Buatois LA, Labandeira CC, Mángano MG, et al (2016) The Mesozoic Lacustrine Revolution. In: Mángano MG, Buatois LA (eds) The Trace-Fossil Record of Major Evolutionary Events: Volume 2: Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 179–263

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecotoxicology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) How We Got To Now: Why The US And Europe Went Different Ways On GMOs. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) Army Training: Improvements Are Needed in 5-Ton Truck Driver Training and Supervision. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia-Manglano J (2013) Working for pay or raising a family? Three papers on women’s work expectations and market outcomes. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee L (2009) Ducking In and Out. New York Times ST4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Burns 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Burke and Robinson 2012; Burns 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Burke and Robinson 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Quintana et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcotoxicology
ISSN (print)0963-9292
ISSN (online)1573-3017
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
General Medicine

Other styles