How to format your references using the Ecotoxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecotoxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chrzan DC (2005) Materials science. Metallurgy in the age of silicon. Science 310:1623–1624
A journal article with 2 authors
Prado MTP, Cepeda-Jiménez CM (2015) Materials science: Strength ceiling smashed for light metals. Nature 528:486–487
A journal article with 3 authors
Ridgwell AJ, Kennedy MJ, Caldeira K (2003) Carbonate deposition, climate stability, and Neoproterozoic ice ages. Science 302:859–862
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Tenoever BR, Ng S-L, Chua MA, et al (2007) Multiple functions of the IKK-related kinase IKKepsilon in interferon-mediated antiviral immunity. Science 315:1274–1278

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wells R (2004) Global Credit Management. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Tartaglia R, Vannucci A (eds) (2013) Prevenire gli eventi avversi nella pratica clinica. Springer, Milano
A chapter in an edited book
Parent A-S, Georgantzi N, Gheno I (2012) Ensuring a Fruitful Future to Innovation and Research: Practical Guidance for the Involvement of Older People in Research. In: Donnelly M, Paggetti C, Nugent C, Mokhtari M (eds) Impact Analysis of Solutions for Chronic Disease Prevention and Management: 10th International Conference on Smart Homes and Health Telematics, ICOST 2012, Artiminio, Italy, June 12-15, 2012. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 26–34

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecotoxicology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) The Strangest Defence Mechanisms In The Animal Kingdom. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005) Air Traffic Control: Preliminary Observations on Commercialized Air Navigation Service Providers. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Poldervaart PG (2010) A qualitative study of nursing didactic programs: Novice nurses’ perception of competence, confidence, and retention. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Firer S (2017) Repetition Works for the Moon. New York Times MM15

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chrzan 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Chrzan 2005; Prado and Cepeda-Jiménez 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Prado and Cepeda-Jiménez 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Tenoever et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcotoxicology
ISSN (print)0963-9292
ISSN (online)1573-3017
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
General Medicine

Other styles