How to format your references using the Ecotoxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecotoxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brown GC (2003) Cell biology. NO says yes to mitochondria. Science 299:838–839
A journal article with 2 authors
Klein ML, Shinoda W (2008) Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of self-assembling systems. Science 321:798–800
A journal article with 3 authors
Béarez P, DeVries TJ, Ortlieb L (2003) Comment on “Otolith delta18O record of mid-Holocene sea surface temperatures in Peru.” Science 299:203; author reply 203
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Sleiman P, Wang D, Glessner J, et al (2013) GWAS meta analysis identifies TSNARE1 as a novel Schizophrenia / Bipolar susceptibility locus. Sci Rep 3:3075

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gladon RJ, Graves WR, Kelly JM (2011) Getting Published in the Life Sciences. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Ramaekers S (2012) The Claims of Parenting: Reasons, Responsibility and Society. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Köhn H (2016) Jewish Life in Camps after 1945. Displaced Persons Camps in the US Zone of Germany. In: Hoppe A (ed) Catastrophes: Views from Natural and Human Sciences. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 63–80

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecotoxicology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Animals In The Wild Voluntarily Use Running Wheels. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003) Human Capital Management: FAA’s Reform Effort Requires a More Strategic Approach. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dzubaty DR (2013) Understanding the undergraduate experience of the baccalaureate nursing student with English as an additional language. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barker K, Taylor K (2014) Teacher Known as Cool Friend, Until His Arrest. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brown 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Brown 2003; Klein and Shinoda 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Klein and Shinoda 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Sleiman et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcotoxicology
ISSN (print)0963-9292
ISSN (online)1573-3017
ScopeHealth, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
General Medicine

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