How to format your references using the Journal of Network and Computer Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Network and Computer Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Malissen, B., 2003. Immunology. Switching off TCR signaling. Science 302, 1162–1163.
A journal article with 2 authors
Maloy, K.J., Powrie, F., 2011. Intestinal homeostasis and its breakdown in inflammatory bowel disease. Nature 474, 298–306.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rai, A., Menon, A.V., Jalan, S., 2014. Randomness and preserved patterns in cancer network. Sci. Rep. 4, 6368.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhou, Z., Luo, M.J., Straesser, K., Katahira, J., Hurt, E., Reed, R., 2000. The protein Aly links pre-messenger-RNA splicing to nuclear export in metazoans. Nature 407, 401–405.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Seeber, P., Shander, A., 2012. Basics of Blood Management. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Asson-Batres, M.A., Rochette-Egly, C. (Eds.), 2014. The Biochemistry of Retinoic Acid Receptors I: Structure, Activation, and Function at the Molecular Level, Subcellular Biochemistry. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Kok, L.J.J., Poston, K., Moore, G., 2011. Bombardier Aerospace FSW Demonstrator, in: Komorowski, J. (Ed.), ICAF 2011 Structural Integrity: Influence of Efficiency and Green Imperatives: Proceedings of the 26th Symposium of the International Committee on Aeronautical Fatigue, Montreal, Canada, 1-3 June 2011. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 73–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Network and Computer Applications.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. Collapsed Ice Lake Led to Catastrophic Martian Flood [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. Charter Schools: New Model for Public Schools Provides Opportunities and Challenges (No. HEHS-95-42). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ahmadi, S.A., 2009. Synergistic interplay between math search and handwritten mathematical notation recognition (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED, M.J., Steel, E., 2017. As Content Makers Rise, Malone Eyes Consolidation. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Malissen, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Malissen, 2003; Maloy and Powrie, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Maloy and Powrie, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhou et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Network and Computer Applications
AbbreviationJ. Netw. Comput. Appl.
ISSN (print)1084-8045
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Computer Science Applications
Hardware and Architecture

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