How to format your references using the Journal of Network and Computer Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Network and Computer Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoeijmakers, J.H., 2001. Genome maintenance mechanisms for preventing cancer. Nature 411, 366–374.
A journal article with 2 authors
Métin, C., Luccardini, C., 2010. Neuroscience. Ubiquitination inhibits neuronal exit. Science 330, 1754–1755.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barth, J.V., Costantini, G., Kern, K., 2005. Engineering atomic and molecular nanostructures at surfaces. Nature 437, 671–679.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Takamoto, M., Hong, F.-L., Higashi, R., Katori, H., 2005. An optical lattice clock. Nature 435, 321–324.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Martinsen, U., 2017. Kostenrechnung in der Bauwirtschaft. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Kim, E., Kim, B.H.S. (Eds.), 2016. Quantitative Regional Economic and Environmental Analysis for Sustainability in Korea, New Frontiers in Regional Science: Asian Perspectives. Springer, Singapore.
A chapter in an edited book
Guang, X., Zhang, Z., 2014. Coding Bounds of Linear Network Error Correction Codes, in: Zhang, Z. (Ed.), Linear Network Error Correction Coding, SpringerBriefs in Computer Science. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 51–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Network and Computer Applications.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. Until Recently, Sahara Desert Hosted World’s Largest Freshwater Lake [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1982. DOD Instruction 5000.5X, Standard Instruction Set Architectures for Embedded Computers (No. MASAD-82-16). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Veru, P.T., 2009. The National-Dobro Guitar Company: How the resonator guitar survived the age of electric amplification (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K., 2001. World Briefing | Europe: Ukraine: President Signs Land Reform Law. New York Times A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hoeijmakers, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Hoeijmakers, 2001; Métin and Luccardini, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Métin and Luccardini, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Takamoto et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Network and Computer Applications
AbbreviationJ. Netw. Comput. Appl.
ISSN (print)1084-8045
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Computer Science Applications
Hardware and Architecture

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