How to format your references using the Journal of Network and Computer Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Network and Computer Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chalker, D.L., 2014. Epigenetics: Keeping one’s sex. Nature 509, 430–431.
A journal article with 2 authors
Campbell, C.T., Peden, C.H.F., 2005. Chemistry. Oxygen vacancies and catalysis on ceria surfaces. Science 309, 713–714.
A journal article with 3 authors
Alitalo, K., Tammela, T., Petrova, T.V., 2005. Lymphangiogenesis in development and human disease. Nature 438, 946–953.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Saleska, S.R., Didan, K., Huete, A.R., da Rocha, H.R., 2007. Amazon forests green-up during 2005 drought. Science 318, 612.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
King, J.A., Timacheff, S., 2008. Digital Photography for Dummies®. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Falanga, M., Belloni, T., Casella, P., Gilfanov, M., Jonker, P., King, A. (Eds.), 2015. The Physics of Accretion onto Black Holes, Space Sciences Series of ISSI. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Rajeshwari, D.S., Rao, P.V., Rajesh, V., 2016. Charge Pump with Improved High-Swing Cascode Current Source for Accurate Current Matching in DPLL, in: Dash, S.S., Bhaskar, M.A., Panigrahi, B.K., Das, S. (Eds.), Artificial Intelligence and Evolutionary Computations in Engineering Systems: Proceedings of ICAIECES 2015, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Springer India, New Delhi, pp. 39–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Network and Computer Applications.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Artificial Tweezers Block HIV, Herpes And Hepatitis C [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2009. Highway Trust Fund: Options for Improving Sustainability and Mechanisms to Manage Solvency (No. GAO-09-845T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hofmann, R., 2010. The fascist reflection Japan and Italy, 1919-1950 (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2010. Rodriguez Stands Alone, and That’s a Good Thing. New York Times B17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chalker, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Campbell and Peden, 2005; Chalker, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Campbell and Peden, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Saleska et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Network and Computer Applications
AbbreviationJ. Netw. Comput. Appl.
ISSN (print)1084-8045
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Computer Science Applications
Hardware and Architecture

Other styles