How to format your references using the Journal of Network and Computer Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Network and Computer Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Aebischer, P., 2012. Philanthropy: The price of charity. Nature 481, 260.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schiermeier, Q., Wegner, R., 2002. Foreign researchers turn their backs on Germany. Nature 415, 945.
A journal article with 3 authors
Coleman, S.W., Patricelli, G.L., Borgia, G., 2004. Variable female preferences drive complex male displays. Nature 428, 742–745.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schroeder, B.C., Waldegger, S., Fehr, S., Bleich, M., Warth, R., Greger, R., Jentsch, T.J., 2000. A constitutively open potassium channel formed by KCNQ1 and KCNE3. Nature 403, 196–199.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vitetta, G.M., Taylor, D.P., Colavolpe, G., Pancaldi, F., Martin, P.A., 2013. Wireless Communications. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Zhou, L., Xu, W., Cheng, Q., Zhao, H. (Eds.), 2016. Underwater Acoustics and Ocean Dynamics: Proceedings of the 4th Pacific Rim Underwater Acoustics Conference. Springer, Singapore.
A chapter in an edited book
Lin, C.Y.-Y., Edvinsson, L., 2011. National Intellectual Capital of Four Larger Western European Countries (France, Germany, Ireland, UK), in: Edvinsson, L. (Ed.), National Intellectual Capital: A Comparison of 40 Countries. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 63–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Network and Computer Applications.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. NASA’s “RoboGloves” Could Double The Strength Of Your Hand [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1999. Aviation Security: FAA’s Actions to Study Responsibilities and Funding for Airport Security and to Certify Screening Companies (No. RCED-99-53). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salam, S., 2017. Interplay between Fines Content and Strength Characteristics of CA 6 and CA 2 Crushed Limestone Aggregate (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon, M.R., Simons, M., 2017. War Crimes Office May Be Shuttered As Tillerson Reorganizes State Dept. New York Times A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Aebischer, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Aebischer, 2012; Schiermeier and Wegner, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schiermeier and Wegner, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Schroeder et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Network and Computer Applications
AbbreviationJ. Netw. Comput. Appl.
ISSN (print)1084-8045
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Computer Science Applications
Hardware and Architecture

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