How to format your references using the Journal of Network and Computer Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Network and Computer Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Willerroider, M., 2004. Making the move into drug sales. Nature 430, 486–487.
A journal article with 2 authors
DePaolo, D.J., Manga, M., 2003. Geology. Deep origin of hotspots--the mantle plume model. Science 300, 920–921.
A journal article with 3 authors
Silk, J.B., Alberts, S.C., Altmann, J., 2003. Social bonds of female baboons enhance infant survival. Science 302, 1231–1234.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Voiculescu, O., Bertocchini, F., Wolpert, L., Keller, R.E., Stern, C.D., 2007. The amniote primitive streak is defined by epithelial cell intercalation before gastrulation. Nature 449, 1049–1052.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Assing, D., Calé, S., 2013. Mobile Access Safety. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ 07030 USA.
An edited book
Ansari, F. (Ed.), 2005. Sensing Issues in Civil Structural Health Monitoring. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Desai, S.S., Wong, B., 2008. Diagnostic Immunology, in: Hospenthal, D.R., Rinaldi, M.G. (Eds.), Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Mycoses, Infectious Disease. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp. 53–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Network and Computer Applications.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Flatworm Mating: Literally a Cockblock [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Transportation Security Administration’s Office of Intelligence: Responses to Posthearing Questions Regarding Secure Flight (No. GAO-06-1051R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Park, A., 2009. Borderland beyond: Korean migrants and the creation of a modern state boundary between Korea and Russia, 1860-1937 (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, S., 1978. The Canadiens; and Soul Hockey No Politics on Ice Flyers a Different Breed. New York Times SportsS2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Willerroider, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (DePaolo and Manga, 2003; Willerroider, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (DePaolo and Manga, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Voiculescu et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Network and Computer Applications
AbbreviationJ. Netw. Comput. Appl.
ISSN (print)1084-8045
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications
Computer Science Applications
Hardware and Architecture

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