How to format your references using the BioPsychoSocial Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BioPsychoSocial Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Perkins K. For the love of ferns. Science. 2014;346:1586.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Quental TB, Marshall CR. How the Red Queen drives terrestrial mammals to extinction. Science. 2013;341:290–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Francis NJ, Kingston RE, Woodcock CL. Chromatin compaction by a polycomb group protein complex. Science. 2004;306:1574–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Thon M, Hosoi T, Yoshii M, Ozawa K. Leptin induced GRP78 expression through the PI3K-mTOR pathway in neuronal cells. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7096.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Grous A. Applied Metrology for Manufacturing Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2011.
An edited book
1. Strange H. Open Problems in Spectral Dimensionality Reduction. Zwiggelaar R, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. McGee RW. Disclosure and Transparency. In: McGee RW, editor. Corporate Governance in Transition Economies. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009. p. 41–5.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BioPsychoSocial Medicine.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. Space-Grown Salad To Be Eaten On ISS For The First Time [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Patrol Frigate. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973 Feb. Report No.: 092648.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Lynch LE. Financial regulation and economic performance: A descriptive correlation study of American financial institutions [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Pilon M. Judging Draws Renewed Scrutiny. New York Times. 2014 Feb 21;B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBioPsychoSocial Medicine
AbbreviationBiopsychosoc. Med.
ISSN (online)1751-0759
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Biological Psychiatry
General Psychology
Social Psychology

Other styles