How to format your references using the BioPsychoSocial Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BioPsychoSocial Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Hoag H. Tougher rules aim to prevent gene flow into crops. Nature. 2003;422:103.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Chang JB, Ferrell JE Jr. Mitotic trigger waves and the spatial coordination of the Xenopus cell cycle. Nature. 2013;500:603–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Orihara Y, Kamogawa M, Nagao T. Preseismic changes of the level and temperature of confined groundwater related to the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6907.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Wudick MM, Portes MT, Michard E, Rosas-Santiago P, Lizzio MA, Nunes CO, et al. CORNICHON sorting and regulation of GLR channels underlie pollen tube Ca2+ homeostasis. Science. 2018;360:533–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Staebler P. Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
1. Sokołowska K, Sowiński P, editors. Symplasmic Transport in Vascular Plants. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Peña A, Sossa H, Gutiérrez A. Knowledge and Reasoning Supported by Cognitive Maps. In: Gelbukh A, Albornoz Á de, Terashima-Marín H, editors. MICAI 2005: Advances in Artificial Intelligence: 4th Mexican International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Monterrey, Mexico, November 14-18, 2005 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. p. 41–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BioPsychoSocial Medicine.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Watch A Giant Water Balloon Explode With A Man Sitting Inside It [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Office of Education’s Efforts To Recover Overpayments from Denver Indian Center. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978 Nov. Report No.: B-164031(1).68.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Aquino-Centeno S. Contesting social memories and identities in the Zapotec Sierra of Oaxaca, Mexico [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Paulson M. Sale of Albee Collection To Benefit Foundation. New York Times. 2017 Jun 25;C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBioPsychoSocial Medicine
AbbreviationBiopsychosoc. Med.
ISSN (online)1751-0759
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Biological Psychiatry
General Psychology
Social Psychology

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