How to format your references using the BioPsychoSocial Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BioPsychoSocial Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Connor CE. Neuroscience. Reconstructing a 3D world. Science. 2002;298:376–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Shao S, Hegde RS. Cell Biology. Local synthesis and disposal. Science. 2014;346:701–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Vaupel JW, Carey JR, Christensen K. Aging. It’s never too late. Science. 2003;301:1679–81.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Klier EM, Wang H, Constantin AG, Crawford JD. Midbrain control of three-dimensional head orientation. Science. 2002;295:1314–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kumar V, Petersen JA. Statistical Methods in Customer Relationship Management. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
1. Chaudhuri S. Foreign Direct Investment in Developing Countries: A Theoretical Evaluation. Mukhopadhyay U, editor. New Delhi: Springer India; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ceelen WP, Morris S, Paraskeva P, Pattyn P. Surgical Trauma, Minimal Residual Disease and Locoregional Cancer Recurrence. In: Ceelen WP, editor. Peritoneal Carcinomatosis: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007. p. 51–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BioPsychoSocial Medicine.

Blog post
1. Hale T. This Giant Black Slug Is Almost As Big As Your Arm [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Surface Transportation Security: TSA Has Taken Steps Designed to Develop Processes for Sharing and Analyzing Information and to Improve Rail Security Incident Reporting. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015 Sep. Report No.: GAO-15-205T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Marcheschi RL. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding individuals with epilepsy by marriage and family therapists and social workers [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Walsh MW. Puerto Rico to Issue $750 Million in Revenue Bonds for Construction. New York Times. 2015 Aug 12;B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBioPsychoSocial Medicine
AbbreviationBiopsychosoc. Med.
ISSN (online)1751-0759
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Biological Psychiatry
General Psychology
Social Psychology

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