How to format your references using the BioPsychoSocial Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BioPsychoSocial Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Piran T. Astronomy. Demotion looms for gamma-ray bursts. Science. 2002;295:986–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Leitch AR, Leitch IJ. Genomic plasticity and the diversity of polyploid plants. Science. 2008;320:481–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Clement AC, Burgman R, Norris JR. Observational and model evidence for positive low-level cloud feedback. Science. 2009;325:460–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Zhang H, Zhang X, Sun X, Ma Y. Shape-controlled synthesis of nanocarbons through direct conversion of carbon dioxide. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3534.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Stidwill D, Fletcher R. Normal Binocular Vision. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Schilders WHA, Vorst HA van der, Rommes J, editors. Model Order Reduction: Theory, Research Aspects and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Young RA, Marshall SK, Valach L, Domene JF, Graham MD, Zaidman-Zait A. Studying Transition Processes. In: Marshall SK, Valach L, Domene JF, Graham MD, Zaidman-Zait A, editors. Transition to Adulthood: Action, Projects, and Counseling. New York, NY: Springer; 2011. p. 37–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BioPsychoSocial Medicine.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Pope Francis Says Destroying The Environment Should Be A Sin [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Vocational Training Contracts Awarded to Engineering Drafting School, Inc., Denver, Colorado. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1972 Aug. Report No.: B-169333.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. George KG. Revisiting “The Blue Line Blues”: Transit-Oriented Development in Inner-City Areas of Los Angeles County, 2000-2016 [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Mccain J. We Must Support Human Rights. New York Times. 2017 May 8;A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBioPsychoSocial Medicine
AbbreviationBiopsychosoc. Med.
ISSN (online)1751-0759
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Biological Psychiatry
General Psychology
Social Psychology

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