How to format your references using the Economics of Transportation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economics of Transportation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brigham, L., 2011. Marine protection in the Arctic cannot wait. Nature 478, 157.
A journal article with 2 authors
Buchan, J.R., Parker, R., 2007. Molecular biology. The two faces of miRNA. Science 318, 1877–1878.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hristov, T.S., Miller, S.D., Friehe, C.A., 2003. Dynamical coupling of wind and ocean waves through wave-induced air flow. Nature 422, 55–58.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dougherty, M.K., Cao, H., Khurana, K.K., Hunt, G.J., Provan, G., Kellock, S., Burton, M.E., Burk, T.A., Bunce, E.J., Cowley, S.W.H., Kivelson, M.G., Russell, C.T., Southwood, D.J., 2018. Saturn’s magnetic field revealed by the Cassini Grand Finale. Science 362.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marcus, Y., 2012. Supercritical Water. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Divangahi, M. (Ed.), 2013. The New Paradigm of Immunity to Tuberculosis, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Ledger, S., Vidovich, L., O’Donoghue, T., 2014. The Research Approach, in: Vidovich, L., O’Donoghue, T. (Eds.), Global to Local Curriculum Policy Processes: The Enactment of the International Baccalaureate in Remote International Schools. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 57–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economics of Transportation.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. Sloth Evolution Not So Slothful After All [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2008. Federal Aviation Administration: Challenges Facing the Agency in Fiscal Year 2009 and Beyond (No. GAO-08-460T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Terry, E.J., 2008. In search of leadership: A look at women presidents in Georgia’s two-year colleges and technical colleges (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schlossberg, T., Schwartz, J., 2017. A Bumblebee Gets New Protection on Obama’s Way Out. New York Times A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brigham, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Brigham, 2011; Buchan and Parker, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Buchan and Parker, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Dougherty et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomics of Transportation
AbbreviationEcon. Transp.
ISSN (print)2212-0122
ScopeEconomics, Econometrics and Finance (miscellaneous)

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