How to format your references using the Economics of Transportation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economics of Transportation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier, Q., 2005. Small is beautiful. Nature 435, 532–533.
A journal article with 2 authors
Houk, K.N., Cheong, P.H.-Y., 2008. Computational prediction of small-molecule catalysts. Nature 455, 309–313.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kourtis, N., Nikoletopoulou, V., Tavernarakis, N., 2012. Small heat-shock proteins protect from heat-stroke-associated neurodegeneration. Nature 490, 213–218.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sun, X., Zhang, X., Schuck, C., Tang, H.X., 2013. Nonlinear optical effects of ultrahigh-Q silicon photonic nanocavities immersed in superfluid helium. Sci. Rep. 3, 1436.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mory, M., 2013. Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA.
An edited book
Crew, M., Brennan, T.J. (Eds.), 2016. The Future of the Postal Sector in a Digital World, Topics in Regulatory Economics and Policy. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Kramann, G., 2013. Darwinian Pianos: Realtime Composition Based on Competitive Evolutionary Process, in: Machado, P., McDermott, J., Carballal, A. (Eds.), Evolutionary and Biologically Inspired Music, Sound, Art and Design: Second International Conference, EvoMUSART 2013, Vienna, Austria, April 3-5, 2013. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 37–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economics of Transportation.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Why I’m Sailing To The Arctic In Search Of Missing Mercury [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1996. Waste From School Lunches (No. RCED-96-128R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Swartz, H., 2017. The Multitude Speaks in Style: An Analysis of Vernacular Agency through Images of Ruth Bader Ginsburg (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M., 1992. Clinton Delays Trip To Work, Pack Up And Fill More Jobs. New York Times A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schiermeier, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Houk and Cheong, 2008; Schiermeier, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Houk and Cheong, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Sun et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomics of Transportation
AbbreviationEcon. Transp.
ISSN (print)2212-0122
ScopeEconomics, Econometrics and Finance (miscellaneous)

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