How to format your references using the Economics of Transportation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economics of Transportation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bignami, G.F., 2000. The microscope’s coat of arms...or, the sting of the bee and the moons of Jupiter. Nature 405, 999.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cosson, S., Lutolf, M.P., 2014. Hydrogel microfluidics for the patterning of pluripotent stem cells. Sci. Rep. 4, 4462.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bo, T.-L., Zhang, H., Zheng, X.-J., 2014. Charge-to-mass ratio of saltating particles in wind-blown sand. Sci. Rep. 4, 5590.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gruszczyk, J., Kanjee, U., Chan, L.-J., Menant, S., Malleret, B., Lim, N.T.Y., Schmidt, C.Q., Mok, Y.-F., Lin, K.-M., Pearson, R.D., Rangel, G., Smith, B.J., Call, M.J., Weekes, M.P., Griffin, M.D.W., Murphy, J.M., Abraham, J., Sriprawat, K., Menezes, M.J., Ferreira, M.U., Russell, B., Renia, L., Duraisingh, M.T., Tham, W.-H., 2018. Transferrin receptor 1 is a reticulocyte-specific receptor for Plasmodium vivax. Science 359, 48–55.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Provost, J.J., Colabroy, K.L., Kelly, B.S., Wallert, M.A., 2016. The Science of Cooking. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Wagh, M.S., Draganov, P.V. (Eds.), 2016. Pancreatic Masses: Advances in Diagnosis and Therapy. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Paireekreng, W., Rapeepisarn, K., Wong, K.W., 2009. Time-Based Personalised Mobile Game Downloading, in: Pan, Z., Cheok, A.D., Müller, W., Rhalibi, A.E. (Eds.), Transactions on Edutainment II, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 59–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economics of Transportation.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. “Very Right Wing” Europeans Are The Most Satisfied With Their Sex Lives [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2010. America COMPETES Act: It Is Too Early to Evaluate Programs Long-Term Effectiveness, but Agencies Could Improve Reporting of High-Risk, High-Reward Research Priorities (No. GAO-11-127R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Graves, I.S., 2010. Positioning of Fifth Grade Students in Small-Group Settings: Naming Participation in Discussion-Based Mathematics (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B., 2017. Did Kuwait Copy Trump’s Travel Ban? Not Quite. New York Times A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bignami, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Bignami, 2000; Cosson and Lutolf, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cosson and Lutolf, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Gruszczyk et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomics of Transportation
AbbreviationEcon. Transp.
ISSN (print)2212-0122
ScopeEconomics, Econometrics and Finance (miscellaneous)

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